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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended July 3, 2020
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number: 1-8703

https://cdn.kscope.io/126b89d1e311dea78557f7261577e114-wdc-20200703_g1.gif
WESTERN DIGITAL CORPORATION
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Delaware33-0956711
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
5601 Great Oaks ParkwaySan Jose,California95119
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (408) 717-6000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 Par Value Per ShareWDCThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 (Nasdaq Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  ý
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on January 3, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $15.7 billion, based on the closing sale price as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
There were 302,525,787 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding as of the close of business on August 19, 2020.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Part III incorporates by reference certain information from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement (the “Proxy Statement”) for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the 2020 fiscal year. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part hereof.

1


WESTERN DIGITAL CORPORATION
INDEX
PAGE NO.
PART I
Item 1.
Business
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.
Properties
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.
Other Information
PART III
Item 10.
Director, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
PART IV
Item 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary

Unless otherwise indicated, references herein to specific years and quarters are to our fiscal years and fiscal quarters, and references to financial information are on a consolidated basis. As used herein, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” “WDC” and “Western Digital” refer to Western Digital Corporation and its subsidiaries, unless we state, or the context indicates, otherwise.

WDC, a Delaware corporation, is the parent company of our data storage business. Our principal executive offices are located at 5601 Great Oaks Parkway, San Jose, California 95119. Our telephone number is (408) 717-6000.

Western Digital, the Western Digital logo, G-Technology, SanDisk and WD are registered trademarks or trademarks of Western Digital or its affiliates in the U.S. and/or other countries. All other trademarks, registered trademarks and/or service marks, indicated or otherwise, are the property of their respective owners.

2

Table of Contents

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This document contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Any statements that do not relate to historical or current facts or matters are forward-looking statements. You can identify some of the forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking words, such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “estimate,” “continue,” “potential,” “plan,” “forecast,” and the like, or the use of future tense. Statements concerning current conditions may also be forward-looking if they imply a continuation of current conditions. Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning:

expectations regarding the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to reduce its spread;
expectations regarding our Flash Ventures joint venture with Kioxia Corporation, the flash industry and our flash wafer output plans;
expectations regarding pricing conditions for flash products;
expectations regarding our cost saving initiatives;
expectations regarding our product development and technology plans;
expectations regarding the outcome of legal proceedings in which we are involved;
our reinvestment in the business and ongoing deleveraging efforts;
our share repurchase program and resumption of our quarterly cash dividend policy;
expectations regarding the repatriation of funds from our foreign operations;
our beliefs regarding tax benefits and the timing of future payments, if any, relating to the unrecognized tax benefits, and the adequacy of our tax provisions;
expectations regarding capital investments and sources of funding for those investments; and
our beliefs regarding the sufficiency of our available liquidity to meet our working capital, debt and capital expenditure needs.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements. You are urged to carefully review the disclosures we make concerning risks and other factors that may affect our business and operating results, including those made in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and any of those made in our other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this document. We do not intend, and undertake no obligation, to publish revised forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this document or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

3

Table of Contents

  PART I

Item 1. Business

General

Western Digital Corporation (“Western Digital”) is a leading developer, manufacturer, and provider of data storage devices and solutions that address the evolving needs of information technology (“IT”) and the infrastructure that enables the proliferation of data in virtually every industry. We create environments for data to thrive. We are driving the innovation needed to help customers capture, preserve, access and transform an ever-increasing diversity of data. Everywhere data lives, from advanced data centers to mobile sensors to personal devices, our industry-leading solutions deliver the possibilities of data.

Our broad portfolio of technology and products address the following key end markets: Client Devices; Data Center Devices and Solutions; and Client Solutions. We also generate license and royalty revenue from our extensive intellectual property (“IP”), which is included in each of these three end market categories.

Founded in 1970 in Santa Ana, California and now headquartered in San Jose, California, Western Digital has one of the technology industry’s most valuable patent portfolios with approximately 13,500 active patents worldwide. Since 2009, we have been a Standard & Poor’s 500 (“S&P 500”) company. We have a rich heritage of innovation and operational excellence, a wide range of IP assets and broad research and development (“R&D”) capabilities. The unabated growth and value of data continues, creating a global need for a larger and more capable storage infrastructure. We continue to transform ourselves to address this growth by providing what we believe to be the broadest range of storage technologies in the industry with a comprehensive product portfolio and global reach. Our devices and solutions are made using either rotating magnetic technology, hard disk drives (“HDD”), or semiconductor technology, referred to as flash-based memory (“flash”).

We enable cloud service providers to build more powerful, cost effective and efficient data centers. We have deep relationships with a large range of original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) and data center customers currently addressing storage opportunities, such as storage subsystem suppliers, major server OEMs, Internet and social media infrastructure players, and personal computer (“PC”) and Mac™ OEMs. We have also built strong consumer brands by providing effective tools to manage fast-accumulating libraries of personal content. Western Digital data-centric solutions are comprised of the Western Digital®, G-Technology™, SanDisk® and WD® brands. Our products are sold through distribution, retail and direct channels worldwide. We are a vertically integrated company with deep capabilities to transform disk drive and flash-based components into products and solutions. We operate a series of joint ventures with Kioxia Corporation (“Kioxia,” formerly known as Toshiba Memory Corporation) that provide us with industry leading flash-based memory wafers that we use in our products (see “Ventures with Kioxia” section below).

We are well positioned to capitalize on the ongoing expansion in digital content generation and management. This fundamental trend is linked directly to commercial enterprises’ and consumers’ need for data storage and extraction of value from the data. The ways in which people and organizations are creating and using data are changing and the amount of data considered useful to store is expanding. More digital content is being stored and managed in a cloud environment on both HDDs and flash-based solid state drives (“SSD”). With a focus on innovation and value creation, our goal is to grow through strong execution and targeted investments in data center infrastructure, mobility and the cloud.

Industry

We operate in the data storage and data management industry. Our devices and solutions provide a broad range of reliability, performance, storage capacity and data retention capabilities to our customers. The ability to capture and create value through the use of data analytics is increasingly important to our customers. In a connected global marketplace, across the data infrastructure, there has been a proliferation in the methods by and the rates at which content is generated, accessed, transformed, consumed and stored by end users. When combined with fast global networks, these trends create tremendous need for cost effective, high-performance and/or high-capacity storage solutions in edge and end-point use cases such as mobile, computing and consumer electronic devices, as well as in a wide range of storage systems, servers and data centers.

4

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The growth in computing complexity, cloud computing applications, connected mobile devices and Internet connected products is driving unabated growth in the volume of digital content to be stored. This growth has led to a creation of new form factors for data storage. The storage industry is increasingly utilizing tiered architectures with HDDs, SSDs and other non-volatile memory-based storage to address an expanding set of uses and applications. We continuously monitor the advantages, disadvantages and advances of the full array of storage technologies, including reviewing these technologies with our customers, to ensure we are appropriately resourced to meet our customers’ storage needs. Storage solutions that hold large amounts of data are key enablers of the trends seen in the evolution of a data driven economy, underpinned by the increase of digital content creation, consumption and monetization.

We are a market and customer driven company, focused on growth, technology, innovation and value creation for our customers, employees and shareholders. We develop deep and collaborative relationships with our customers with a goal of enabling their continued success, an approach that has made us a trusted business partner in our served markets. As our portfolio of storage solutions expands further, we believe our customer engagement approach is one of the key factors that will help us continue to achieve strong financial performance over the long term. We continue to evolve our customer engagement and go-to-market model to address changing customer and market needs. We are well positioned to expand our value-creation model within an evolving and growing storage ecosystem with our diversified product platform and unique competitive advantages.

Competition

Our industry is highly competitive. We compete with manufacturers of HDDs and flash-based memory for client devices and solutions, and data center devices and solutions. In HDD, we compete with Seagate Technology plc and Toshiba Electronic Devices & Storage Corporation. In flash, we compete with vertically integrated suppliers such as Intel Corporation, Kioxia, Micron Technology, Inc., Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., SK hynix, Inc., Yangtze Memory Technologies Co., Ltd. and numerous smaller companies that assemble flash into products.

Business Strategy

Our overall strategy is to leverage our technology, innovation and execution capabilities to be an industry-leading and broad-based developer, manufacturer and provider of storage devices and solutions that support the infrastructure that has enabled the unabated proliferation of data. We believe we are the only company in the world with large-scale capabilities to develop and manufacture a portfolio of integrated data storage solutions that are based on both rotating magnetic and flash memory technologies. We strive to successfully execute our strategy through the following foundational elements in order to deliver the best outcome for our customers, partners, investors and employees:

Technology Leadership: We continue to innovate and develop advanced technologies across platforms for both HDD and flash to deliver timely new products and solutions to meet growing demands for scale, performance and cost efficiency in the market.

Broad Product Portfolio: We leverage our capabilities in firmware, software and systems in both HDD and flash to deliver compelling and differentiated integrated storage solutions to our customers that offer the best combinations of performance, cost, power consumption, form factor, quality and reliability, while creating new use cases for our solutions in emerging markets.

Operational Excellence: We are focused on delivering the best value for our customers in data center, client and consumer markets through a relentless focus on appropriately scaling our operations across both HDD and flash technologies to efficiently support business growth, achieving best in class cost, quality and cycle-time, maintaining industry leading manufacturing capabilities, and having a competitive advantage in supply-chain management.

Our strategy provides the following benefits, which distinguish us in the dynamic and competitive data storage industry:

differentiates us as the leading developer and manufacturer of integrated products and solutions based on both HDD and flash, making us a more strategic supply partner to our large-scale customers who have storage needs across the data infrastructure ecosystem;

enables scaling for efficiency and flexibility, allowing us to leverage our HDD and flash R&D and capital expenditures to deliver storage solutions to multiple markets;

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results in continued diversification of our HDD and flash storage solutions portfolio and entry into additional growing adjacent markets; and

allows us to achieve strong financial performance, including healthy cash generation, thereby enabling organic and inorganic business investments and facilitating our ongoing deleveraging efforts.

Data Storage Solutions

We offer a broad line of data storage solutions to meet the evolving storage needs of end markets which include the following:

Client Devices

Client Devices consist of HDDs and SSDs for computing devices, such as desktop and notebook PCs, smart video systems, gaming consoles and set top boxes; flash-based embedded storage products for mobile phones, tablets, notebook PCs and other portable and wearable devices, automotive, Internet of Things (“IoT”), industrial and connected home applications; and flash-based memory wafers and components. Our HDDs and SSDs are designed for use in devices requiring high performance, reliability and capacity with various attributes such as low cost per gigabyte (“GB”), quiet acoustics, low power consumption and protection against shocks.

Data Center Devices and Solutions

Data Center Devices and Solutions consist of high-capacity enterprise HDDs and high-performance enterprise SSDs, and platforms. Our capacity enterprise helium hard drives provide high capacity storage needs and low total cost of ownership per GB for the growing cloud data center market. These drives are primarily for use in data storage systems, in tiered storage models and where data must be stored reliably for years. Our high-performance enterprise class SSDs include high-performance flash-based SSDs and software solutions which are optimized for performance applications providing a range of capacity and performance levels primarily for use in enterprise servers, supporting high volume on-line transactions, data analysis and other enterprise applications. We also provide higher value data storage platforms to the market.

Client Solutions

Client Solutions consist of HDDs and SSDs embedded into external storage products and removable flash-based products, which include cards, universal serial bus (“USB”) flash drives and wireless drives. Our external HDD storage products in both mobile and desktop form factors provide affordable, high quality, reliable storage for backup and capacity expansion that are designed to keep digital content secure. We offer client portable SSDs with a range of capacities and performance characteristics to address a broad spectrum of the client storage market. Our removable cards are designed primarily for use in consumer devices, such as mobile phones, tablets, imaging systems, still cameras, action video cameras and smart video systems. Our USB flash drives are used in the computing and consumer markets and are designed for high-performance and reliability. Our wireless drive products allow in-field back up of created content, as well as wireless streaming of high-definition movies, photos, music and documents to tablets, smartphones and PCs.

Technology

Rotating Magnetic Storage

HDDs provide non-volatile data storage based on the recording of magnetic information on a rotating disk. We have successfully developed and commercialized HDDs that operate in an enclosed helium environment, instead of air, delivering industry leading HDD capacity and performance attributes. Our improvements in HDD capacity, which lower product costs over time, have been enabled largely through advancements in recording head and magnetic media technology. We develop and manufacture substantially all of the recording heads and magnetic media used in our hard drive products. We invest considerable resources in R&D, manufacturing infrastructure and capital equipment for recording head and media technology, as well as other aspects of the magnetic recording system such as HDD mechanics, controller and firmware technology, in order to secure our competitive position and cost structure. To support our ongoing efforts of driving innovation and continued areal density leadership, we are actively investing in both microwave-assisted magnetic recording (“MAMR”) and heat-assisted magnetic recording (“HAMR”) technology. As part of our energy-assisted recording technology roadmap, in 2019 we introduced our 16-, 18-, and 20-terabyte drives that are using energy-assisted perpendicular magnetic recording (“ePMR”) technology.
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Solid State Storage

Solid state storage products provide non-volatile data storage based on flash technology. We develop and manufacture solid state storage products in different form factors for a variety of different markets, including enterprise or cloud storage, client storage, automotive, mobile devices and removable memory devices.

Our solid state storage products utilize our captive flash-based technology which we develop and manufacture through our business ventures with Kioxia. We devote significant research and development resources to the development of highly reliable, high-performance, cost-effective flash-based technology. Over time, we have successfully developed and commercialized an increased number of storage bits per cell in an increasingly smaller form factor, further driving cost reductions. Following our introduction and commercialization in 2018 of products based on 4-bits-per-cell architectures (“QLC technology”) and on 3-dimensional flash technology (“3D NAND”), which we refer to as BiCS4, we started shipping products based on QLC and our 4th generation 96-layer BiCS4 technologies in 2019. Our BiCS4 QLC technology delivers an industry-leading storage capacity of 1.33 terabits on a single chip. We have also begun initial shipments of our 5th generation 112-layer BiCS5 products. In addition, we implemented our advanced UFS and e.MMC interface in a new portfolio of advanced embedded flash drives to empower smartphone users to unlock the full potential of today’s data-driven applications and experiences. We also provide a range of embedded storage solutions for customers developing high-end, highly demanding, and data-intensive automotive applications.

We expect to develop and commercialize additional generations of 3D NAND technologies over the next several years while continuing to utilize our older technology for certain markets and applications.

We are leveraging our expertise, resources and strategic investments in non-volatile memories to explore a wide spectrum of persistent memory and storage class memory technologies. We have also initiated, defined and developed standards to meet new market needs and to promote wide acceptance of flash storage standards through interoperability and ease-of-use.

Our products generally leverage a common platform for various products within product families, and in some cases across product families, resulting in the commonality of components which reduces our exposure to changes in demand, facilitates inventory management and allows us to achieve lower costs through purchasing economies. This platform strategy also enables our customers to leverage their qualification efforts onto successive product models. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Research and Development

We devote substantial resources to the development of new products and the improvement of existing products. We focus our engineering efforts on coordinating our product design and manufacturing processes to bring our products to market in a cost-effective and timely manner. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Patents, Licenses and Proprietary Information

We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyright and trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures and licensing arrangements to protect our IP rights.

We have approximately 13,500 active patents worldwide and have many patent applications in process. We continually seek additional United States (“U.S.”) and international patents on our technology. We believe that, although our active patents and patent applications have considerable value, the successful manufacturing and marketing of our products also depends upon the technical and managerial competence of our staff. Accordingly, the patents held and applied for cannot alone ensure our future success.

In addition to patent protection of certain IP rights, we consider elements of our product designs and processes to be proprietary and confidential. We believe that our non-patented IP, particularly some of our process technology, is an important factor in our success. We rely upon non-disclosure agreements, contractual provisions and a system of internal safeguards to protect our proprietary information. Despite these safeguards, there is a risk that competitors may obtain and use such information. The laws of foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business may provide less protection for confidential information than the laws of the U.S.

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We rely on certain technology that we license from other parties to manufacture and sell our products. We believe that we have adequate cross-licenses and other agreements in place in addition to our own IP portfolio to compete successfully in the storage industry. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Manufacturing

We believe that we have significant know-how, unique product manufacturing processes, test and tooling, execution skills, human resources and training to continue to be successful and to grow our manufacturing operations as necessary. We strive to maintain manufacturing flexibility, high manufacturing yields, reliable products and high-quality components. The critical elements of our production of HDD and flash-based products are high-volume and utilization, low-cost assembly and testing, strict adherence to quality metrics and maintaining close relationships with our strategic component suppliers to access best-in-class technology and manufacturing capacity. We continually monitor our manufacturing capabilities to respond to the changing requirements of our customers and maintain our competitiveness and position as a data technology leader.

HDD and flash-based product manufacturing are complex processes involving the production and assembly of precision components with narrow tolerances and rigorous testing. The manufacturing processes involve a number of steps that are dependent on each other and occur in “clean room” environments that demand skill in process engineering and efficient space utilization to control the operating costs of these manufacturing environments. We continually evaluate our manufacturing processes in an effort to increase productivity, sustain and improve quality and decrease manufacturing costs. We continually evaluate which steps in the manufacturing process would benefit from automation and how automated manufacturing processes can improve productivity and reduce manufacturing costs.

Substantially all of our flash-based supply requirements for our flash-based products is obtained from our business ventures with Kioxia, which provide us with leading-edge, high-quality and low-cost flash memory wafers. This represents our captive supply and we are obligated to take our share of the output from these ventures or pay the fixed costs associated with that capacity. See “Ventures with Kioxia” below for additional information. While substantially all of our flash memory supply utilized for our products is purchased from these ventures, from time-to-time, we also purchase flash memory from other flash manufacturers, which we refer to as non-captive. While we do not unilaterally control the operations of our ventures with Kioxia, we believe that our business venture relationship with Kioxia helps us to reduce the costs of producing our products, increases our ability to control the quality of our products and speeds delivery of our products to our customers. Our vertically integrated manufacturing operations for our flash-based products are concentrated in three locations, with our business ventures with Kioxia located primarily in Yokkaichi, Japan, and our in-house assembly and test operations located in Shanghai, China and Penang, Malaysia.

We also leverage the efficiencies of contract manufacturers when strategically advantageous. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Materials and Supplies

HDD consists primarily of recording heads, magnetic media and a printed circuit board assembly. We design and manufacture substantially all of the recording heads and magnetic media required for our products. As a result, we are more dependent upon our own development and execution efforts and less reliant on recording head and magnetic media technologies developed by other manufacturers. We depend on an external supply base for all remaining components and materials for use in our HDD product design, manufacturing, and testing.

Our flash-based products consist of flash memory, controllers and firmwares. Substantially all of our flash-based memory is supplied by our business ventures with Kioxia. Controllers are primarily designed in-house and manufactured by third-party foundries or acquired from third-party suppliers. We believe the use of our in-house assembly and test facilities, as well as contract manufacturers, provides flexibility and gives us access to increased production capacity. We have developed deep relationships with these vendors and Kioxia to establish continuous supply of flash-based memory and controllers.

We generally retain multiple suppliers for our component requirements but, for business or technology reasons, we source some of our components from a limited number of sole or single source providers. Currently, we believe that there are no major issues with component availability. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Ventures with Kioxia

We and Kioxia currently operate three business ventures in 300-millimeter flash-based manufacturing facilities in Japan, which provide us leading-edge, cost-competitive flash-based memory wafers for our end products. Through Flash Partners Ltd., Flash Alliance Ltd., and Flash Forward Ltd., which we collectively refer to as Flash Ventures, we and Kioxia collaborate in the development and manufacture of flash-based memory wafers using semiconductor manufacturing equipment owned or leased by each of the Flash Venture entities. We hold a 49.9% ownership position in each of the Flash Venture entities. Each Flash Venture entity purchases wafers from Kioxia at cost and then resells those wafers to us and Kioxia at cost plus a small mark-up. We are obligated to pay for variable costs incurred in producing our share of Flash Ventures’ flash-based memory wafer supply, based on our three-month forecast, which generally equals 50% of Flash Ventures’ output. In addition, we are obligated to pay for half of Flash Ventures’ fixed costs regardless of the output we choose to purchase. We are also obligated to fund 49.9% to 50% of each Flash Ventures entity’s capital investments to the extent that Flash Ventures entity’s operating cash flow is insufficient to fund these investments. We co-develop flash technologies (including process technology and memory design) with Kioxia and contribute IP for Flash Ventures’ use.

The agreements governing the operations of the Flash Venture entities also set out a framework for any investment by the joint venture partners in flash manufacturing capacity. Since its inception, Flash Ventures’ primary manufacturing site has been located in Yokkaichi, Japan. The Yokkaichi site, which is owned and operated by Kioxia, currently includes five wafer fabrication facilities. We have jointly invested, and intend to continue to jointly invest, with Kioxia in manufacturing equipment for the Yokkaichi fabrication facilities. In May 2019, we entered into additional agreements to extend Flash Ventures to a new wafer fabrication facility, known as “K1.” Located in Kitakami, Japan, K1 is operated by Kioxia Iwate Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Kioxia. The primary purpose of K1 is to provide clean room space to continue the transition of existing flash-based wafer capacity to newer technology nodes. Output from the initial production line at K1 began in the third quarter of fiscal year 2020. Meaningful output from K1 is not expected to begin until the end of calendar year 2020.

For a discussion of risks associated with our business ventures with Kioxia, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Sales and Distribution

We maintain sales offices in selected parts of the world including the major geographies of the Americas, Asia Pacific, Europe and the Middle East. Our international sales, which include sales to foreign subsidiaries of U.S. companies but do not include sales to U.S. subsidiaries of foreign companies, represented 72%, 78% and 78% of our net revenue for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Sales to international customers are subject to certain risks not normally encountered in domestic operations, including exposure to tariffs and various trade regulations. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We perform our marketing and advertising functions internally and through outside firms utilizing both consumer media and trade publications targeting various reseller and end-user categories. We also maintain customer relationships through direct communication and by providing information and support through our website. In accordance with standard storage industry practice, we provide distributors and retailers with limited price protection and programs under which we reimburse certain marketing expenditures. We also provide distributors, resellers and OEMs with other sales incentive programs. While these groups of customers make up our end markets, some of these customers cross into multiple groups. We define these customers as follows:

Original Equipment Manufacturers. OEMs purchase our products either directly or through a contract manufacturer such as an original design manufacturer and assemble them into the devices they build and market under their own brands. OEMs typically seek to qualify two or more providers for each generation of products and generally will purchase products from those vendors for the life of that product. Many of our OEM customers utilize just-in-time inventory management processes. As a result, for certain OEMs, we maintain a base stock of finished goods inventory in facilities located near or adjacent to the OEM’s operations. In addition, we sell flash storage solutions directly to customers that offer our products under their own brand name in the retail market, which we also classify as OEMs.

Cloud. A large and growing customer base are those who integrate our storage solutions to provide services to other companies and end users primarily through the cloud. This customer base includes hyper-scale users that utilize our storage solutions to provide cloud-based services and infrastructure including information technology services, social media, gaming, streaming media, research and other services to an ever-increasing market. This group of customers purchase either directly, through an integrator, an original design manufacturer (“ODM”), an OEM or a combination of channels.
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Distributors. We use a broad group of distributors to sell our products to non-direct customers such as small computer and consumer electronics (“CE”) manufacturers, dealers, value-added resellers, systems integrators, online retailers and other resellers. Distributors generally enter into non-exclusive agreements with us for the purchase and redistribution of our products in specific territories.

Retailers. We sell our branded products directly to a select group of major retailers such as computer superstores, warehouse clubs, online retailers and computer electronics stores, and authorize sales through distributors to smaller retailers. The retail channel complements our other sales channels while helping to build brand awareness for us and our products. We also sell our branded products through our websites.

For each of 2020, 2019 and 2018, no single customer accounted for 10% or more of our net revenue. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. For additional information regarding revenue recognition and major customers, see Part II, Item 8, Note 1, Organization and Basis of Presentation, and Note 10, Business Segment, Revenue Information, Geographic Information and Concentration of Risk, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Backlog

A substantial portion of our orders are generally for shipments within 60 days of the placement of the order. Customers’ purchase orders may be canceled with relatively short notice to us, with little or no cost to the customer, or modified by customers to provide for delivery at a later date. In addition, for many of our OEMs utilizing just-in-time inventory, we do not generally require firm order commitments and instead receive a periodic forecast of requirements. Therefore, backlog information as of the end of a particular period is not necessarily indicative of future levels of our revenue and profit and may not be comparable to prior periods.

Seasonality

We have historically experienced seasonal fluctuations in our business with higher levels of demand in the first and second quarters of our fiscal year as a result of increased customer spending. Seasonality can also be impacted by the growth in emerging markets and macroeconomic conditions. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Service and Warranty

We generally warrant our newly manufactured products against defects in materials and workmanship from one to five years from the date of sale depending on the type of product, with a small number of products having a warranty ranging up to ten years or more. Our warranty obligation is generally limited to repair or replacement. We have engaged third parties in various countries in multiple regions to provide various levels of testing, processing, or recertification of returned products for our customers. For additional information regarding our service and warranty policy, see Part II, Item 8, Note 1, Organization and Basis of Presentation, and Note 3, Supplemental Financial Statement Data, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Environmental Regulation

We are subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws and regulations in connection with our operations and relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing discharges of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and the clean-up of contaminated sites. Some of our operations require environmental permits and controls to prevent and reduce air and water pollution. These permits are subject to modification, renewal and revocation by issuing authorities. We believe that we have obtained or are in the process of obtaining all necessary environmental permits for our operations.

We have established environmental management systems and continually update our environmental policies and standard operating procedures for our operations worldwide. We believe that our operations are in material compliance with applicable environmental laws, regulations and permits. We budget for operating and capital costs on an ongoing basis to comply with environmental laws.

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Our properties have in some cases been operated for many years and may contain soil or groundwater contamination. In certain of our facilities we are undertaking voluntary monitoring of soil and groundwater. Based on available information, including our voluntary monitoring activities, we do not believe that we have a current affirmative legal obligation for any remedial action.

For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Employees

As of July 3, 2020, we employed a total of approximately 63,800 employees worldwide, excluding temporary employees and contractors. Many of our employees are highly skilled and our continued success depends in part upon our ability to attract and retain such employees. Accordingly, we offer our employees compensation and benefit programs that we believe are, in the aggregate, competitive with those offered by our competitors.

While the substantial majority of our employees are not party to a collective bargaining agreement, nearly half of our employees in Japan and China and a portion of our employees in Malaysia are subject to collective bargaining agreements. We consider our employee relations to be good. For a discussion of associated risks, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability

We believe responsible and sustainable business practices support our long-term success. As a company, we are deeply committed to protecting and supporting our people, our environment, and our communities. That commitment is reflected through sustainability-focused initiatives as well as day-to-day activities, including our adoption of sustainability-focused policies and procedures, our publicly-recognized focus on fostering an inclusive workplace, our constant drive toward more efficient use of materials and energy, our careful and active management of our supply chain, our community-focused volunteerism programs and philanthropic initiatives, and our impactful, globally-integrated ethics and compliance program.

We seek to protect the human rights and civil liberties of our employees through policies, procedures, and programs that avoid risks of compulsory and child labor, both within our company and throughout our supply chain.

We foster a workplace of dignity, respect, diversity, and inclusion through our recruiting and advancement practices, internal communications, and employee resource groups.

We educate our employees annually on relevant ethics and compliance topics, publish accessible guidance on ethical issues and related company resources in our Global Code of Conduct, and encourage reporting of ethical concerns through any of several global and local reporting channels.

We support local communities throughout the world, focusing on hunger relief, environmental quality, and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education, especially for underrepresented and underprivileged youth.

We utilize a robust integrated management system, with associated policies and procedures, to evaluate and manage occupational health and safety risks, environmental compliance, and chemical and hazardous substance risks.

We innovate to reduce the energy used by our products, the energy used to manufacture them, and the amount of new materials required to manufacture them.

We proactively protect the health and safety of our employees through policies and practices that help employees maintain safe distances from others (including remote work and social distancing at our facilities), ensure our facilities are regularly sanitized, and provide support to employees who have been or are at risk of being infected by dangerous viruses though an emergency leave plan for absences caused directly or indirectly by COVID-19.

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Available Information

We maintain an Internet website at www.wdc.com. The information on our website is not incorporated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available on our website at www.wdc.com, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after the electronic filing of these reports with, or furnishing of these reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our business, financial condition and operating results can be affected by a number of risks and uncertainties, whether currently known or unknown, any one or more of which could, directly or indirectly, cause our actual results of operations and financial condition to vary materially from past, or from anticipated future, results of operations and financial condition. The risks and uncertainties discussed below are not the only ones facing our business, but represent risks and uncertainties that we believe are material to us. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or the market price of our common stock.

The COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to control its spread have impacted and will continue to impact our workforce and operations, and those of our strategic partners, customers, suppliers and logistics providers. These impacts have included and may continue to include under-absorbed overhead, increased logistics and other costs, decreased demand for our products and manufacturing challenges, including decreased product output. While our manufacturing facilities and those used by Flash Ventures are all currently operational, in some cases with exemptions from government restrictions, this is subject to change based on evolving conditions related to the pandemic.

The effects of the pandemic are uncertain and difficult to predict, but may include:

Further disruptions to our supply chain, our operations or those of our strategic partners, customers or suppliers caused by employees or others contracting COVID-19, or governmental orders to contain the spread of COVID-19 such as travel restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place orders, trade controls, and business shutdowns;

A deepening of the global economic downturn or a recession causing a decrease or shift in short- or long-term demand for our products, resulting in industry oversupply and decreases of average selling prices (“ASPs”), which would adversely impact our profitability;

Further deterioration of worldwide credit markets that may limit our ability or increase our cost to obtain external financing to fund our operations and capital expenditures and result in a higher rate of losses on our accounts receivables due to customer credit defaults;

Extreme volatility in financial markets which has and may continue to adversely impact our stock price and our ability to access the financial markets on acceptable terms;

Increased data security and technology risk as many employees continue to work from home, including possible outages to systems and technologies critical to remote work and increased data privacy risk with cybercriminals attempting to take advantage of the disruption;

Reduced productivity or other disruptions of our operations if essential workers in our factories or those returning to our worksites are exposed to or spread COVID-19 to other employees; and

Management’s ongoing commitment of significant time, attention and resources to respond to the pandemic.

The degree to which the pandemic ultimately impacts our business and results of operations will depend on future developments beyond our control which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time, including the severity and duration of the pandemic, the extent of actions to contain or treat COVID-19, the effectiveness of government stimulus programs, any possible resurgence of COVID-19 that may occur after the current outbreak subsides, how quickly and to what
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extent normal economic and operating activity can resume, and the severity and duration of the global economic downturn that results from the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in more detail in this “Risk Factors” section, such as those relating to adverse global or regional conditions, our highly competitive industry, supply chain disruption, demand conditions and our ability to forecast demand, cost saving initiatives, our indebtedness and liquidity, and cyber attacks.

Adverse global or regional conditions could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A large portion of our revenue is derived from our international operations, and many of our products and components are produced overseas. As a result, our business, results of operations and financial condition depend significantly on global and regional conditions. Adverse changes in global or regional economic conditions, including, but not limited to, volatility in the financial markets, tighter credit, slower growth in certain geographic regions, political uncertainty, other macroeconomic factors, and changes to social conditions, policies, rules and regulations, could significantly harm demand for our products, increase credit and collectability risks, result in revenue reductions, cause us to change our business practices, increase manufacturing and operating costs or result in impairment charges or other expenses.

Our revenue and future growth are significantly dependent on the growth of international markets, and we may face difficulties in entering or maintaining international sales markets. We are subject to risks associated with our global manufacturing operations and global marketing and sales efforts, as well as risks associated with our utilization of and reliance on contract manufacturers, including:

obtaining requisite governmental permits and approvals, compliance with foreign laws and regulations and changes in foreign laws and regulations;

the need to comply with regulations on international business, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010, the anti-bribery laws of other countries and rules regarding conflict minerals;

copyright levies or similar fees or taxes imposed in European and other countries;

exchange, currency and tax controls and reallocations;

weaker protection of IP rights;

trade restrictions, such as export controls, export bans, embargoes, sanctions, license and certification requirements (including semiconductor, encryption and other technology), new or increased tariffs and fees and complex customs regulations; and

difficulties in managing international operations, including appropriate internal controls.

As a result of these risks, our business, results of operations or financial condition could be adversely affected.

We rely substantially on our business ventures with Kioxia for the development and supply of flash-based memory, which subjects us to risks and uncertainties that could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

We depend on our ventures with Kioxia to develop and manufacture our flash-based memory. We partner with Kioxia on the development of flash-based technology, including future generations of 3D NAND, as well as other non-volatile memory technology in support of Flash Ventures. Flash Ventures is subject to various risks that could harm the value of our investments, our revenue and costs, our future rate of spending, our technology plans and our future growth opportunities.

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Substantially all of our flash-based memory is supplied by Flash Ventures, which limits our ability to respond to market demand and supply changes. A failure to accurately forecast demand could cause us to over-invest or under-invest in technology transitions or the expansion of Flash Ventures’ capacity. Over-investment by us or our competitors could result in excess supply, which could cause significant decreases in our product prices, significant excess, obsolete inventory or inventory write-downs or under-utilization charges, and the potential impairment of our investments in Flash Ventures. On the other hand, if we under-invest in Flash Ventures or otherwise grow or transition Flash Ventures’ capacity more slowly than we expect or than the rest of the industry, we may not have enough supply of the right type of memory or at all to meet demand on a timely and cost effective basis and we may lose opportunities for revenue, gross margin and market share as a result. If our supply is limited, we may make strategic decisions with respect to the allocation of our supply among our products and customers, and these strategic allocation decisions may result in less favorable gross margin or damage certain customer relationships. We are contractually obligated to pay for 50% of the fixed costs of Flash Ventures regardless of whether we purchase any wafers from Flash Ventures. Furthermore, purchase orders placed with Flash Ventures and under the foundry arrangements with Kioxia for up to three months are binding and cannot be canceled. Therefore, once our purchase decisions have been made, our production costs for flash memory are fixed, and we may be unable to reduce costs to match any subsequent declines in pricing or demand, which would harm our gross margin. Our limited ability to react to fluctuations in flash memory supply and demand makes our financial results particularly susceptible to variations from our forecasts and expectations.

Under the Flash Ventures agreements, we have limited power to unilaterally direct most of the activities that most significantly impact Flash Ventures’ performance and we have limited ability to source or fabricate flash-based memory outside of Flash Ventures. Lack of alignment with Kioxia with respect to Flash Ventures could adversely impact our ability to stay at the forefront of technological advancement and our investment in Flash Ventures and otherwise harm our business. Misalignment could arise due to changes in Kioxia’s strategic priorities, management, ownership and/or access to capital, which has changed significantly recently and could continue to change. Kioxia’s stakeholders may include, or have included in the past, flash and HDD competitors, customers, a private equity firm and a bank owned by the Government of Japan or public shareholders, if Kioxia publicly lists its shares in the future. Kioxia’s management changes, ownership and capital structure could lead to delays in decision-making, disputes, or changes in strategic direction that could adversely impact Flash Ventures and/or adversely affect our business prospects, results of operations and financial condition. There may exist conflicts of interest between Kioxia’s stakeholders and Flash Ventures or us with respect to, among other things, protecting and growing Flash Ventures’ business, IP and competitively sensitive confidential information.

Flash Ventures requires significant investments by both Kioxia and us for technology transitions, including the transition to 3D NAND, and capacity expansions. In May 2019, Kioxia’s parent company, Kioxia Holdings Corporation (“KHC”), announced new financing in the amount of 1.2 trillion Japanese yen. KHC’s financing agreements and/or its high level of debt could limit Kioxia’s ability to timely fund or finance investments in Flash Ventures or our joint development efforts, as well as limit Flash Ventures’ ability to enter into lease financings. Availability of lease financings for Flash Ventures could also be limited by our and/or Kioxia’s financial performance. To the extent that lease financings for Flash Ventures are not accessible on favorable terms or at all, more cash would be required to fund investments. If Kioxia does not or we do not provide sufficient resources, or have adequate access to credit, to timely fund investments in Flash Ventures, our investments could be delayed or reduced. Delayed or reduced investment in manufacturing capacity or R&D could harm Flash Ventures’ competitiveness and/or our investment in Flash Ventures. In addition, KHC’s financing arrangements might be secured by Kioxia’s equity interests in Flash Ventures, permitting the lenders to foreclose on those equity interests under certain circumstances.

In May 2019, we entered into definitive agreements with Kioxia regarding a new 3D NAND wafer fabrication facility in Kitakami, Iwate, Japan, known as “K1.” Output from Flash Ventures’ initial production line at K1 began in the third quarter of fiscal year 2020. As K1 is located at a new manufacturing site, K1 could be particularly susceptible to delays and other challenges in the production ramp and yields, qualification of wafers, shipment of samples to customers and customer approval processes. Further, although we intend to continue to jointly invest with Kioxia to ramp up manufacturing capacity at K1, there is no certainty as to when, and on what terms, we will do so. If and for so long as our share of the K1 capacity falls below a specified threshold, we will be responsible for bearing fixed costs associated with K1’s operations at that threshold, which could adversely affect our financial results.
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We participate in a highly competitive industry that is subject to declining average selling prices (“ASPs”), volatile demand, rapid technological change and industry consolidation, all of which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Demand for our devices, software and solutions that we offer to our customers, which we refer to in this Item 1A as our “products”, depends in large part on the demand for systems (including personal computers and mobile devices) manufactured by our customers and on storage upgrades to existing systems. The demand for systems has been volatile in the past and often has had an exaggerated effect on the demand for our products in any given period. The prices of our products are influenced by, among other factors, the balance between supply and demand in the storage market, including the effects of new fab capacity, macroeconomic factors, business conditions, technology transitions and other actions taken by us or our competitors. The storage market has experienced volatile product life cycles, which can adversely affect our ability to recover the cost of product development, and periods of excess capacity, which can lead to liquidation of excess inventories, significant reductions in ASPs and adverse impacts on our revenue and gross margins.

Further, our ASPs and gross margins tend to decline when there is a shift in the mix of product sales, and sales of lower priced products increase relative to those of higher priced products. Further, we face potential gross margin pressures resulting from our ASPs declining more rapidly than our cost of revenue. Rapid technological changes often reduce the volume and profitability of sales of existing products and increase the risk of inventory obsolescence. Finally, the data storage industry has experienced consolidation over the past several years. Further consolidation across the industry could enhance the capacity, abilities and resources and lower the cost structure of some of our competitors, causing us to be at a competitive disadvantage. These factors may result in significant shifts in market share among the industry’s major participants, including a substantial decrease in our market share, all of which could adversely impact our operating results and financial condition.

In addition, we compete based on our ability to offer our customers competitive solutions that provide the most current and desired products and service features. As we compete in new product areas, the overall complexity of our business may increase at an accelerated rate and may result in increases in R&D expenses and substantial investments in manufacturing capability, technology enhancements and go-to-market capability. We must also qualify our products with customers through potentially lengthy testing processes, which may result in delayed, reduced or lost product sales. Some of our competitors offer products and technologies that we do not offer and may be able to use their broader product and technology portfolio to win sales from us, and some of our customers may be developing storage solutions internally, which may reduce their demand for our products. We expect that competition will continue to be intense, and there is a risk that our competitors may be able to gain a product offering or cost structure advantage over us, which may result in a loss of business to us. Further, some of our competitors may utilize certain pricing strategies, including offering products at prices at or below cost, that we may be unable to competitively match. We may also have difficulty effectively competing with manufacturers benefitting from governmental investments.

If we do not properly manage technology transitions and product development and introduction, our competitiveness and operating results may be negatively affected.

The storage markets in which we offer our products continuously undergo technology transitions that we must anticipate and adapt our existing products or develop new products to address in a timely manner. If we fail to implement new technologies successfully, if we are slower than our competitors at implementing new technologies, or if our technology transitions or product development are more costly to complete than anticipated, we may not be able to offer products our customers desire and our costs may not remain competitive, which would harm revenues, our gross margin and operating results.

In addition, the success of our technology transitions and product development and introduction depends on a number of other factors, including:

R&D expenses and results;

difficulties faced in manufacturing ramp;

market acceptance/qualification;

effective management of inventory levels in line with anticipated product demand;

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the vertical integration of some of our products, which may result in more capital expenditures and greater fixed costs than if we were not vertically integrated;

our ability to cost effectively respond to customer requests for new products or features and software associated with our products;

our ability to increase our software development capability; and

the effectiveness of our go-to-market capability in selling new products.

Moving to new technologies and products may require us to align to, and build, a new supply base. Our success in new product areas may be dependent in part on our ability to develop close relationships with new suppliers and on our ability to enter into favorable supply agreements. Where this cannot be done, our business and operations may be adversely affected. In addition, if our customers choose to delay transition to new technologies, if demand for the products that we develop is lower than expected or if the supporting technologies to implement these new technologies are not available, we may be unable to achieve the cost structure required to support our profit objectives or may be unable to grow or maintain our market position.

Additionally, new technologies and products could substitute for or replace our current technologies and products and make them obsolete. We also develop products to meet certain industry and technical standards, which may change. We could incur substantial costs as a result of shifts in technology and standards, such as adopting new standards or investing in different capital equipment or manufacturing processes to remain competitive.

For additional technology transition risks related to Flash Ventures, see the risk factor entitled “We rely substantially on our business ventures with Kioxia for the development and supply of flash-based memory, which subjects us to risks and uncertainties that could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

Our strategic relationships subject us to risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have entered into strategic relationships with various partners for future product development, sales growth and the supply of technologies, components, equipment and materials for use in our product design and manufacturing, including our partnership with Kioxia for flash-based memory development and manufacturing. These strategic relationships are subject to various risks that could adversely affect the value of our investments and our results of operations and financial condition. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

our interests could diverge from our partners’ interests or we may not agree with co-venturers on ongoing activities, technology transitions or on the amount, timing or nature of further investments in the relationship;

we may experience difficulties and delays in product and technology development at, ramping production at, and transferring technology to, our business ventures;

our control over the operations of our business ventures is limited;

due to financial constraints, our co-venturers may be unable to meet their commitments to us or may pose credit risks for our transactions with them;

due to differing business models, financial constraints or long-term business goals, our partners may decide not to join us in funding capital investment by our business ventures, which may result in higher levels of cash expenditures by us or prevent us from proceeding in the investment;

we may lose the rights to technology or products being developed by the strategic relationship, including if any of our co-venturers is acquired by another company or otherwise transfers its interest in the business venture, files for bankruptcy or experiences financial or other losses;

a bankruptcy event involving a co-venturer could result in the early termination or adverse modification of the business venture or agreements governing the business venture;

we may experience difficulties or delays in collecting amounts due to us from our co-venturers;
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the terms of our arrangements may turn out to be unfavorable; and

changes in tax, legal or regulatory requirements may necessitate changes in the agreements with our co-venturers.

If our strategic relationships are unsuccessful or there are unanticipated changes in, or termination of, our strategic relationships, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We are dependent on a limited number of qualified suppliers who provide critical materials or components, and a disruption in our supply chain, including a shortage in supply or a supplier’s failure to support us in a timely manner with goods or services at a quality level and cost acceptable to us, or supplier consolidation, could adversely affect our margins, revenues and operating results.

We depend on an external supply base for technologies, software (including firmware), preamps, controllers, dynamic random-access memory, components, equipment and materials for use in our product design and manufacturing. We also depend on suppliers for a portion of our wafer testing, chip assembly, product assembly and product testing, and on service suppliers for providing technical support for our products. In addition, we use logistics partners to manage our just-in-time hubs, distribution centers and freight from suppliers to our factories and from our factories to our customers throughout the world. Many of the components and much of the equipment we acquire must be specifically designed to be compatible for use in our products or for developing and manufacturing our future products, and are only available from a limited number of suppliers, some of whom are our sole-source suppliers. We are therefore dependent on these suppliers to be able and willing to meet our business needs including dedicating adequate engineering resources to develop components that can be successfully integrated into our products, technology and equipment.

Our suppliers have in the past been, and may in the future be, unable or unwilling to meet our requirements. If we are unable to purchase sufficient quantities from our current suppliers or qualify and engage additional suppliers, or if we cannot purchase materials at a reasonable price, we may not be able to meet demand for our products. Trade restrictions, including tariffs, quotas and embargoes, demand from other high volume industries for materials or components used in our products, disruptions in supplier relationships or shortages in other components and materials used in our customers’ products could result in increased costs to us or decreased demand for our products, which could negatively impact our operating results. Delays or cost increases experienced by our suppliers in developing or sourcing materials and components for use in our products or incompatibility or quality issues relating to our products, could also harm our financial results as well as business relationships with our customers.

We do not have long-term contracts with some of our existing suppliers, nor do we always have guaranteed manufacturing capacity with our suppliers and, therefore, we cannot guarantee that they will devote sufficient resources or capacity to manufacturing our products. Any significant problems that occur at our suppliers, or their failure to perform at the level we expect, could lead to product shortages or quality assurance problems, either of which would harm our operating results and financial condition. When we do have contractual commitments with component suppliers in an effort to increase and stabilize the supply of those components, those commitments may require us to buy a substantial number of components from the supplier or make significant cash advances to the supplier; however, these commitments may not result in a satisfactory increase or stabilization of the supply of such components and may cause us to have inadequate or excess component inventory, which could increase our operating costs and adversely affect our operating results.

In addition, our supply base has experienced industry consolidation. Our suppliers may be acquired by our competitors, consolidate, decide to exit the industry, or redirect their investments and increase costs to us, each of which may have an adverse effect on our business and operations. In addition, some of our suppliers have experienced a decline in financial performance. Where we rely on a limited number of suppliers or a single supplier, the risk of supplier loss due to industry consolidation or a decline in financial performance is enhanced. Some of our suppliers may also be competitors in other areas of our business, which could lead to difficulties in price negotiations or meeting our supply requirements. Any disruption in our supply chain could reduce our revenue and adversely impact our financial results.

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Our operations, and those of certain of our suppliers and customers, are subject to substantial risk of damage or disruption.

As a result of our cost structure and strategy of vertical integration, we conduct our operations at large, high volume, purpose-built facilities in California and throughout Asia. The facilities of many of our customers, our suppliers and our customers’ suppliers are also concentrated in certain geographic locations throughout Asia and elsewhere. A fire, flood, earthquake, tsunami or other natural disaster, condition or event such as a power outage, terrorist attack, political instability, civil unrest, localized labor unrest or other employment issues, or a health epidemic that adversely affects any of these facilities, the employees, the technology infrastructure or logistics operators at these facilities, would significantly affect our ability to manufacture or sell our products and source components, which would result in a substantial loss of sales and revenue and a substantial harm to our operating results. In addition, the geographic concentration of our manufacturing sites could exacerbate the negative impacts resulting from any of these problems. A significant event that impacts any of our manufacturing sites, or the sites of our customers or suppliers, could adversely affect our ability to manufacture or sell our products, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.

We may incur losses beyond the limits of, or outside the scope of, the coverage of our insurance policies. There can be no assurance that in the future we will be able to maintain existing insurance coverage or that premiums will not increase substantially. Due to market availability, pricing or other reasons, we may elect not to purchase insurance coverage or to purchase only limited coverage. We maintain limited insurance coverage and, in some cases, no coverage at all, for natural disasters and environmental damages, as these types of insurance are sometimes not available or available only at a prohibitive cost. We depend upon Kioxia to obtain and maintain sufficient property, business interruption and other insurance for Flash Ventures. If Kioxia fails to do so, we could suffer significant unreimbursable losses, and such failure could also cause Flash Ventures to breach various financing covenants.

We experience sales seasonality and cyclicality, which could cause our operating results to fluctuate. In addition, accurately forecasting demand has become more difficult, which could adversely affect our business and financial results or operating efficiencies.

Sales of computer systems, mobile devices, storage subsystems, gaming consoles and consumer electronics tend to be seasonal and subject to supply-demand cycles, and therefore we expect to continue to experience seasonality and cyclicality in our business as we respond to variations in supply dynamics and customer demand. Changes in seasonal and cyclical supply and demand patterns have made it, and could continue to make it, more difficult for us to forecast demand, especially as a result of the current macroeconomic environment. Changes in the product or channel mix of our business can also impact seasonal and cyclical patterns, adding complexity in forecasting demand. Seasonality and cyclicality also may lead to higher volatility in our stock price. It is difficult for us to evaluate the degree to which seasonality and cyclicality may affect our stock price or business in future periods because of the rate and unpredictability of product transitions, actions by competitors, new product introductions and macroeconomic conditions.

The variety and volume of products we manufacture are based in part on accurately forecasting market and customer demand for our products. Accurately forecasting demand has also become increasingly difficult for us, our customers and our suppliers due to volatility in global economic conditions and industry consolidation, resulting in less availability of historical market data for certain product segments. Further, for many of our original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) customers utilizing just-in-time inventory, we do not generally require firm order commitments and instead receive a periodic forecast of requirements, which may prove to be inaccurate. In addition, because our products are designed to be largely interchangeable with competitors’ products, our demand forecasts may be impacted significantly by the strategic actions of our competitors. As forecasting demand becomes more difficult, the risk that our forecasts are not in line with demand increases. If our forecasts exceed actual market demand, we could experience periods of product oversupply, excess inventory, and price decreases, which could impact our sales, ASPs and gross margin, thereby adversely affecting our operating results and our financial condition. If market demand increases significantly beyond our forecasts or beyond our ability to add manufacturing capacity, then we may not be able to satisfy customer product needs, possibly resulting in a loss of market share if our competitors are able to meet customer demands. In addition, some of our components have long lead-times, requiring us to place orders several months in advance of anticipated demand. Such long lead-times increase the risk of excess inventory or loss of sales in the event our forecasts vary substantially from actual demand.
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The loss of our key management, staff and skilled employees, the inability to hire and integrate new employees or decisions to realign our business could negatively impact our business prospects.

Our success depends upon the continued contributions of our key management, staff and skilled employees, many of whom would be extremely difficult to replace. Changes in our key management team can result in loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge, departure of other key employees, disruptions to our operations and inefficiency during transitional periods. Global competition for skilled employees in the technology related industry is intense, and our business success becomes increasingly dependent on our ability to retain our key staff and skilled employees, to implement succession plans for our key management and staff, to attract, integrate and retain new skilled employees, including employees from acquisitions, and to make decisions to realign our business to take advantage of efficiencies or reduce redundancies. Changes in immigration policies may impair our ability to recruit and hire technical and professional talent. Our employee hiring and retention also depend on our ability to build and maintain a diverse and inclusive workplace culture and be viewed as an employer of choice. Additionally, because a substantial portion of our key employees’ compensation is placed “at risk” and linked to the performance of our business, including through equity compensation, when our operating results are negatively impacted, we may be at a competitive disadvantage for retaining and hiring key management, staff and skilled employees versus other companies that may pay a relatively higher portion of base compensation. If we are unable to hire and retain key management, staff or skilled employees, our operating results would likely be harmed.

If we fail to identify, manage, complete and integrate acquisitions, investment opportunities or other significant transactions, which are a key part of our growth strategy, it may adversely affect our future results.

We seek to be an industry-leading developer, manufacturer and provider of innovative storage solutions, balancing our core hard drive and flash memory business with growing investments in newer areas that we believe will provide us with higher growth opportunities. Acquisitions of, investment opportunities in, or other significant transactions with companies that are complementary to our business are a key part of our overall business strategy. In order to pursue this part of our growth strategy successfully, we must continue to identify attractive acquisition or investment opportunities, successfully complete the transactions, some of which may be large and complex, and manage post-closing issues such as integration of the acquired company or employees. We may not be able to continue to identify or complete appealing acquisition or investment opportunities given the intense competition for these transactions. Even if we identify and complete suitable corporate transactions, we may not be able to successfully address any integration challenges in a timely manner, or at all. There may be difficulties with implementing new systems and processes or with integrating systems and processes of companies with complex operations, which could result in inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies and may increase the risk that our internal controls are found to be ineffective. Failing to successfully integrate or realign our business to take advantage of efficiencies or reduce redundancies of an acquisition may result in not realizing all or any of the anticipated benefits of the acquisition. In addition, failing to achieve the financial model projections for an acquisition or changes in technology development and related roadmaps following an acquisition may result in the incurrence of impairment charges and other expenses, both of which could adversely impact our results of operations or financial condition. Acquisitions and investments may also result in the issuance of equity securities that may be dilutive to our shareholders and the issuance of additional indebtedness that would put additional pressure on liquidity. Furthermore, we may agree to provide continuing service obligations or enter into other agreements in order to obtain certain regulatory approvals of our corporate transactions, and failure to satisfy these additional obligations could result in our failing to obtain regulatory approvals or the imposition of additional obligations on us, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, new legislation or additional regulations may affect or impair our ability to invest with or in certain other countries or require us to obtain regulatory approvals to do so, including investments in joint ventures, minority investments and outbound technology transfers to certain countries.

Any cost saving initiatives, restructurings or divestitures that we undertake may result in disruptions to our operations and may not deliver the results we expect, which may adversely affect our business.

From time to time, we engage in cost saving initiatives, restructurings and divestitures that may result in workforce reduction and consolidation of our manufacturing or other facilities. As a result of these actions, we may experience a loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge, disruptions to our operations and inefficiency during transitional periods. These actions could also impact employee retention. In addition, we cannot be sure that these actions will be as successful in reducing our overall expenses as we expect, that additional costs will not offset any such reductions or consolidations or that we do not forego future business opportunities as a result of these actions. If our operating costs are higher than we expect or if we do not maintain adequate control of our costs and expenses, our operating results could be adversely affected.
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Our high level of debt may adversely impact our liquidity, restrict our operations and ability to respond to business opportunities, and increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions.

As of July 3, 2020, our total indebtedness was $9.71 billion in aggregate principal, and we had $2.25 billion of additional borrowing availability under our revolving credit facility, subject to customary conditions under the credit agreement.

Our high level of debt could have significant consequences, which include, but are not limited to, the following:

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate purposes;

requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes;

imposing financial and other restrictive covenants on our operations, including limiting our ability to (i) declare or pay dividends or repurchase shares of our common stock; (ii) purchase assets, make investments, complete acquisitions, consolidate or merge with or into, or sell all or substantially all of our assets to, another person; (iii) dispose of assets; (iv) incur liens; and (v) enter into transactions with affiliates; and

making us more vulnerable to economic downturns and limiting our ability to withstand competitive pressures or take advantage of new opportunities to grow our business.

Our ability to meet our debt service obligations, comply with our debt covenants and deleverage depends on our cash flows and financial performance, which are affected by financial, business, economic and other factors. The rate at which we will be able to or choose to deleverage is uncertain. Failure to meet our debt service obligations or comply with our debt covenants could result in an event of default under the applicable indebtedness. We may be unable to cure, or obtain a waiver of, an event of default or otherwise amend our debt agreements to prevent an event of default thereunder on terms acceptable to us or at all. In that event, the debt holders could accelerate the related debt, which may result in the cross-acceleration or cross-default of other debt, leases or other obligations. We may not have sufficient funds available to repay accelerated indebtedness, and we may be required to refinance all or part of our debt, sell important strategic assets at unfavorable prices, incur additional indebtedness or issue common stock or other equity securities, which we may be unable to do on terms acceptable to us, in amounts sufficient to meet our needs or at all. Our inability to service our debt obligations or refinance our debt could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Further, if we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our secured indebtedness, the holder of such debt could proceed against the collateral securing that indebtedness. Refinancing our indebtedness may also require us to expense previous debt issuance costs or to incur new debt issuance costs.

As our bank debt contains a variable interest rate component based on our corporate credit ratings, a decline in our ratings could result in increased interest rates and debt service obligations. In addition, our ratings impact the cost and availability of future borrowings and, accordingly, our cost of capital. Our ratings reflect the opinions of the ratings agencies as to our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet our debt obligations. There can be no assurance that we will achieve a particular rating or maintain a particular rating in the future.

Our credit agreement uses the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as a reference rate for our term loans and revolving credit facility, such that the applicable interest rate may, at our option, be calculated based on LIBOR. In July 2017, the U.K.’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. In April 2018, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing a Secured Overnight Funding Rate, which is intended to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR. Plans for alternative reference rates for other currencies have also been announced. At this time, we cannot predict how markets will respond to these proposed alternative rates or the effect of any changes to LIBOR or the discontinuation of LIBOR. If LIBOR is no longer available or if our lenders have increased costs due to changes in LIBOR, we may experience potential increases in interest rates on our variable rate debt, which could adversely impact our interest expense, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, replacing LIBOR with an alternative reference rate for any of our debt could be a taxable event.

We may from time to time seek to further refinance our substantial indebtedness by issuing additional shares of common stock, which may dilute our existing shareholders, reduce the value of our common stock, or both.
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Loss of revenue from a key customer, or consolidation among our customer base, could harm our operating results.

During the year ended July 3, 2020, 42% of our revenue came from sales to our top 10 customers. These customers have a variety of suppliers to choose from and therefore can make substantial demands on us, including demands on product pricing and on contractual terms, often resulting in the allocation of risk to us as the supplier. Our ability to maintain strong relationships with our principal customers is essential to our future performance. We have experienced and may in the future experience events such as the loss of a key customer, prohibition or restriction of sales to a key customer by law, regulation or other government action, reductions in sales to or orders by a key customer, customer requirements to reduce our prices before we are able to reduce costs or the acquisition of a key customer by one of our competitors. These events would likely harm our operating results and financial condition. Further, government authorities may implement laws or regulations or take other actions that could result in significant changes to the business or operating models of our customers. Such changes could adversely affect our operating results.

Additionally, if there is consolidation among our customer base, our customers may be able to command increased leverage in negotiating prices and other terms of sale, which could adversely affect our profitability. Consolidation among our customer base may also lead to reduced demand for our products, increased customer pressure on our prices, replacement of our products by the combined entity with those of our competitors and cancellations of orders, each of which could harm our operating results.

Also, the storage ecosystem is constantly evolving, and our traditional customer base is changing. Fewer companies now hold greater market share for certain applications and services, such as cloud storage and computing platforms, mobile, social media, shopping and streaming media. As a result, the competitive landscape is changing, giving these companies increased leverage in negotiating prices and other terms of sale, which could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, the changes in our evolving customer base create new selling and distribution patterns to which we must adapt. To remain competitive, we must respond to these changes by ensuring we have proper scale in this evolving market, as well as offer products that meet the technological requirements of this customer base at competitive pricing points. To the extent we are not successful in adequately responding to these changes, our operating results and financial condition could be harmed.

Tax matters may materially affect our financial position and results of operations.

Changes in tax laws in the United States, the European Union and around the globe have impacted and will continue to impact our effective worldwide tax rate, which may materially affect our financial position and results of operations. Further, organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, have published action plans that, if adopted by countries where we do business, could increase our tax obligations in these countries. Due to the large scale of our U.S. and international business activities, many of these enacted and proposed changes to the taxation of our activities could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our financial position and results of operations. Additionally, portions of our operations are subject to a reduced tax rate or are free of tax under various tax holidays that expire in whole or in part from time to time, or may be terminated if certain conditions are not met. Although many of these holidays may be extended when certain conditions are met, we may not be able to meet such conditions. If the tax holidays are not extended, or if we fail to satisfy the conditions of the reduced tax rate, then our effective tax rate could increase in the future.

Our determination of our tax liability in the U.S. and other jurisdictions is subject to review by applicable domestic and foreign tax authorities. For example, as disclosed in Part II, Item 8, Note 13, Income Tax Expense, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are under examination by the Internal Revenue Service for certain fiscal years and in connection with that examination, we received statutory notices of deficiency seeking certain adjustments to income and have filed petitions with the U.S. Tax Court. Although we believe our tax positions are properly supported, the final timing and resolution of any tax examinations are subject to significant uncertainty and could result in litigation or the payment of significant amounts to the applicable tax authority in order to resolve examination of our tax positions, which could result in an increase or decrease of our current estimate of unrecognized tax benefits and may negatively impact our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

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Sales in the distribution channel and to the retail market are important to our business, and if we fail to respond to demand changes within these markets, or maintain and grow our applicable market share, our operating results could suffer.

Our distribution customers typically sell to small computer manufacturers, dealers, systems integrators and other resellers. We face significant competition in this channel as a result of limited product qualification programs and a significant focus on price and availability of product. As a result of the shift to mobile devices, more computing devices are being delivered to the market as complete systems, which could weaken the distribution market. If we fail to respond to changes in demand in the distribution market, our operating results could suffer. Additionally, if the distribution market weakens as a result of technology transitions or a significant change in consumer buying preference, or if we experience significant price declines due to demand changes in the distribution channel, our operating results would be adversely affected. Negative changes in the credit-worthiness or the ability to access credit, or the bankruptcy or shutdown of any of our significant retail or distribution partners would harm our revenue and our ability to collect outstanding receivable balances.

A significant portion of our sales is also made through retailers. Our success in the retail market depends in large part on our ability to maintain our brand image and corporate reputation and to expand into and gain market acceptance of our products in multiple retail market channels. Particularly in the retail market, adverse publicity, whether or not justified, or allegations of product or service quality issues, even if false or unfounded, could damage our reputation and cause our customers to choose products offered by our competitors. Further, changes to the retail environment, such as store closures caused by macroeconomic conditions or changing customer preferences, may reduce the demand for our products. If customers no longer maintain a preference for our product brands or if our retailers are not successful in selling our products, our operating results may be adversely affected.

Our operating results fluctuate, sometimes significantly, from period to period due to many factors, which may result in a significant decline in our stock price.

Our quarterly operating results may be subject to significant fluctuations as a result of a number of other factors including:

weakness in demand for one or more product categories;

the timing of orders from and shipment of products to major customers or loss of major customers;

our product mix;

reductions in the ASPs of our products and lower margins;

excess output, capacity or inventory, resulting in lower ASPs, financial charges or impairments, or insufficient output, capacity or inventory, resulting in lost revenue opportunities;

inability to successfully implement technology transitions or other technology developments, or other failure to reduce product costs to keep pace with reduction in ASPs;

manufacturing delays or interruptions;

delays in design wins or customer qualifications, acceptance by customers of competing products in lieu of our products;

variations in the cost of and lead times for components for our products, disruptions of our supply chain;

increase in costs due to warranty claims; and

higher costs as a result of currency exchange rate fluctuations.

We often ship a high percentage of our total quarterly sales in the third month of the quarter, which makes it difficult for us to forecast our financial results before the end of the quarter. As a result of the above or other factors, our forecast of operating results for the quarter may differ materially from our actual financial results. If our results of operations fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors, it could cause an immediate and significant decline in our stock price.

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If our technology infrastructure, systems or products are compromised, damaged or interrupted by cyber attacks, data security breaches, other security problems, design defects or sustain system failures, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We experience cyber attacks of varying degrees on our technology infrastructure and systems and, as a result, unauthorized parties have obtained in the past, and may in the future obtain, access to our computer systems and networks, including cloud-based platforms. The technology infrastructure and systems of our suppliers, vendors, service providers, cloud solution providers and partners have in the past experienced and may in the future experience such attacks. Cyber attacks can include computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, worms, and other malicious software programs or other attacks, covert introduction of malware to computers and networks, impersonation of authorized users, and efforts to discover and exploit any design flaws, bugs, security vulnerabilities or security weaknesses, as well as intentional or unintentional acts by employees or other insiders with access privileges, intentional acts of vandalism or fraud by third parties and sabotage. In some instances, efforts to correct vulnerabilities or prevent attacks may reduce the performance of our computer systems and networks, which could negatively impact our business. We believe cyber attack attempts are increasing in number and that cyber attackers are developing increasingly sophisticated systems and means to not only attack systems, but also to evade detection or to obscure their activities.

Our products are also targets for cyber attacks, including those products utilized in cloud-based environments as well as our cloud service offerings. While some of our products contain encryption or security algorithms to protect third-party content or user-generated data stored on our products, these products could still be hacked or the encryption schemes could be compromised, breached, or circumvented by motivated and sophisticated attackers. Further, our products contain sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that may contain security problems, security vulnerabilities, or defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could interfere with the intended operation of our products. To the extent our products are hacked or the encryption schemes are compromised or breached, this could harm our business by requiring us to employ additional resources to fix the errors or defects, exposing us to litigation and indemnification claims and hurting our reputation.

If efforts to breach our infrastructure, systems or products are successful or we are unable to protect against these risks, we could suffer interruptions, delays, or cessation of operations of our systems, and loss or misuse of proprietary or confidential information, IP, or sensitive or personal information. Breaches of our infrastructure, systems or products could also cause our customers and other affected third parties to suffer loss or misuse of proprietary or confidential information, IP, or sensitive or personal information, and could harm our relationships with customers and other third parties. As a result, we could experience additional costs, indemnification claims, litigation, and damage to our brand and reputation. All of these consequences could harm our reputation and our business and materially and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

We are subject to laws, rules, and regulations relating to the collection, use, sharing, and security of third-party data including personal data, and our failure to comply with these laws, rules and regulations could subject us to proceedings by governmental entities or others and cause us to incur penalties, significant legal liability, or loss of customers, loss of revenue, and reputational harm.

We are subject to laws, rules, and regulations relating to the collection, use, and security and privacy of third-party data including data that relates to or identifies an individual person. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, and among us, our subsidiaries and other parties with which we have commercial relations. Our possession and use of third-party data, including personal data and employee data in conducting our business, subjects us to legal and regulatory burdens that require us to notify vendors, customers or employees or other parties with which we have commercial relations of a data security breach and to respond to regulatory inquiries and to enforcement proceedings. Laws and regulations relating to the collection, use, and security and privacy of third-party data change over time and new laws and regulations become effective from time to time. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which became effective January 1, 2020, imposes new obligations on certain companies doing business in California with respect to the personal information of California residents. These obligations include new notice and privacy policy requirements, as well as new obligations to respond to requests to know and access personal information, delete personal information and say no to the sale of personal information. Global privacy and data protection legislation, enforcement, and policy activity in this area are rapidly expanding and evolving, and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Compliance requirements and even our inadvertent failure to comply with applicable laws may cause us to incur substantial costs, subject us to proceedings by governmental entities or others, and cause us to incur penalties or other significant legal liability, or lead us to change our business practices.

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We are subject to risks related to product defects, which could result in product recalls or epidemic failures and could subject us to warranty claims in excess of our warranty provisions or which are greater than anticipated, litigation or indemnification claims.

We warrant the majority of our products for periods of one to five years. We test our products in our manufacturing facilities through a variety of means. However, our testing may fail to reveal defects in our products that may not become apparent until after the products have been sold into the market. In addition, our products may be used in a manner that is not intended or anticipated by us, resulting in potential liability. Accordingly, there is a risk that product defects will occur, including as a result of third-party components or applications that we incorporate in our products, which could require a product recall. Product recalls can be expensive to implement. As part of a product recall, we may be required or choose to replace the defective product. Moreover, there is a risk that product defects may trigger an epidemic failure clause in a customer agreement. If an epidemic failure occurs, we may be required to replace or refund the value of the defective product and to cover certain other costs associated with the consequences of the epidemic failure. In addition, product defects, product recalls or epidemic failures may cause damage to our reputation or customer relationships, lost revenue, indemnification for a recall of our customers’ products, warranty claims, litigation or loss of market share with our customers, including our OEM and ODM customers. Our business liability insurance may be inadequate or future coverage may be unavailable on acceptable terms, which could adversely impact our operating results and financial condition.

Our standard warranties contain limits on damages and exclusions of liability for consequential damages and for misuse, improper installation, alteration, accident or mishandling while in the possession of someone other than us. We record an accrual for estimated warranty costs at the time revenue is recognized. We may incur additional expenses if our warranty provisions do not reflect the actual cost of resolving issues related to defects in our products, whether as a result of a product recall, epidemic failure or otherwise. If these additional expenses are significant, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We are subject to state, federal and international legal and regulatory requirements, such as environmental, labor, trade, health, safety, anti-corruption and tax regulations, customers’ standards of corporate citizenship, and industry and coalition standards, such as those established by the Responsible Business Alliance (“RBA”), and compliance with those requirements could cause an increase in our operating costs and failure to comply may harm our business.

We are subject to, and may become subject to additional, state, federal and international laws and regulations governing our environmental, labor, trade, health, safety, anti-corruption and tax practices. These laws and regulations, particularly those applicable to our international operations, are or may be complex, extensive and subject to change. We will need to ensure that we and our suppliers, customers and partners timely comply with such laws and regulations, which may result in an increase in our operating costs. Legislation has been, and may in the future be, enacted in locations where we manufacture or sell our products, which could impair our ability to conduct business in certain jurisdictions or with certain customers and harm our operating results. In addition, climate change and financial reform legislation is a significant topic of discussion and has generated and may continue to generate federal, international or other regulatory responses in the near future. If we or our suppliers, customers or partners fail to timely comply with applicable legislation, certain customers may refuse to purchase our products or we may face increased operating costs as a result of taxes, fines or penalties, or legal liability and reputational damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

In connection with our compliance with environmental laws and regulations, as well as our compliance with industry and coalition environmental initiatives, such as those established by the RBA, the standards of business conduct required by some of our customers, and our commitment to sound corporate citizenship in all aspects of our business, we could incur substantial compliance and operating costs and be subject to disruptions to our operations and logistics. In addition, if we or our suppliers, customers or partners were found to be in violation of these laws or noncompliant with these initiatives or standards of conduct, we could be subject to governmental fines, liability to our customers and damage to our reputation and corporate brand, which could cause our financial condition and operating results to suffer.

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We and certain of our officers are at times involved in litigation, investigations and governmental proceedings, which may be costly, may divert the efforts of our key personnel and could result in adverse court rulings, fines or penalties, which could materially harm our business.

From time to time, we are involved in litigation, including antitrust and commercial matters, putative securities class action suits and other actions. We are the plaintiff in some of these actions and the defendant in others. Some of the actions seek injunctive relief, including injunctions against the sale of our products, and substantial monetary damages, which if granted or awarded, could materially harm our business, financial condition and operating results. From time to time, we may also be the subject of inquiries, requests for information, investigations and actions by government and regulatory agencies regarding our businesses. Any such matters could result in material adverse consequences to our results of operations, financial condition or ability to conduct our business, including fines, penalties or restrictions on our business activities.

Litigation is subject to inherent risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations. In the event of an adverse outcome in any litigation, investigation or governmental proceeding, we could be required to pay substantial damages, fines or penalties and cease certain practices or activities, including the manufacture, use and sale of products. With or without merit, such matters can be complex, can extend for a protracted period of time, can be very expensive and the expense can be unpredictable. Litigation initiated by us could also result in counter-claims against us, which could increase the costs associated with the litigation and result in our payment of damages or other judgments against us. In addition, litigation, investigations or governmental proceedings and any related publicity may divert the efforts and attention of some of our key personnel, affect demand for our products and harm the market prices of our securities.

We may be obligated to indemnify our current or former directors or employees, or former directors or employees of companies that we have acquired, in connection with litigation, investigations or governmental proceedings. These liabilities could be substantial and may include, among other things: the costs of defending lawsuits against these individuals; the cost of defending shareholder derivative suits; the cost of governmental, law enforcement or regulatory investigations or proceedings; civil or criminal fines and penalties; legal and other expenses; and expenses associated with the remedial measures, if any, which may be imposed.

The nature of our industry and its reliance on IP and other proprietary information subjects us and our suppliers, customers and partners to the risk of significant litigation.

The data storage industry has been characterized by significant litigation. This includes litigation relating to patent and other IP rights, product liability claims and other types of litigation. We have historically been involved in frequent disputes regarding patent and other IP rights, and we have in the past received, and we may in the future receive, communications from third parties asserting that certain of our products, processes or technologies infringe upon their patent rights, copyrights, trademark rights or other IP rights. We may also receive claims of potential infringement if we attempt to license IP to others. IP risks increase when we enter into new markets where we have little or no IP protection as a defense against litigation. The complexity of the technology involved and the uncertainty of IP litigation increase the IP risks we face. Litigation can be expensive, lengthy and disruptive to normal business operations. Moreover, the results of litigation are inherently uncertain and may result in adverse rulings or decisions. We may be subject to injunctions, enter into settlements or be subject to judgments that may, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

If we incorporate third-party technology into our products or if claims or actions are asserted against us for alleged infringement of the IP of others, we may be required to obtain a license or cross-license, modify our existing technology or design a new non-infringing technology. Such licenses or design modifications can be extremely costly. We evaluate notices of alleged patent infringement and notices of patents from patent holders that we receive from time to time. We may decide to settle a claim or action against us, which settlement could be costly. We may also be liable for any past infringement. If there is an adverse ruling against us in an infringement lawsuit, an injunction could be issued barring production or sale of any infringing product. It could also result in a damage award equal to a reasonable royalty or lost profits or, if there is a finding of willful infringement, treble damages. Any of these results would increase our costs and harm our operating results. In addition, our suppliers, customers and partners are subject to similar risks of litigation, and a material, adverse ruling against a supplier, customer or partner could negatively impact our business.

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Moreover, from time to time, we agree to indemnify certain of our suppliers and customers for alleged IP infringement. The scope of such indemnity varies but may include indemnification for direct and consequential damages and expenses, including attorneys’ fees. We may be engaged in litigation as a result of these indemnification obligations. Third party claims for patent infringement are excluded from coverage under our insurance policies. A future obligation to indemnify our customers or suppliers may harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

Our reliance on IP and other proprietary information subjects us to the risk that these key ingredients of our business could be copied by competitors.

Our success depends, in significant part, on the proprietary nature of our technology, including non-patentable IP such as our process technology. We primarily rely on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as nondisclosure agreements and other methods, to protect our proprietary technologies and processes. There can be no assurance that our existing patents will continue to be held valid, if challenged, or that they will have sufficient scope or strength to protect us. It is also possible that competitors or other unauthorized third parties may obtain, copy, use or disclose, illegally or otherwise, our proprietary technologies and processes, despite our efforts to protect our proprietary technologies and processes. If a competitor is able to reproduce or otherwise capitalize on our technology despite the safeguards we have in place, it may be difficult, expensive or impossible for us to obtain necessary legal protection. There are entities whom we believe may infringe our IP. Enforcement of our rights often requires litigation. If we bring a patent infringement action and are not successful, our competitors would be able to use similar technology to compete with us. Moreover, the defendant in such an action may successfully countersue us for infringement of their patents or assert a counterclaim that our patents are invalid or unenforceable. Also, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our IP to the same extent as do U.S. laws. In addition to patent protection of IP rights, we consider elements of our product designs and processes to be proprietary and confidential. We rely upon employee, consultant and vendor non-disclosure agreements and contractual provisions and a system of internal safeguards to protect our proprietary information. However, any of our registered or unregistered IP rights may be challenged or exploited by others in the industry, which could harm our operating results.

The success of our branded products depends in part on the positive image that consumers have of our brands. We believe the popularity of our brands makes them a target of counterfeiting or imitation, with third parties attempting to pass off counterfeit products as our products. Any occurrence of counterfeiting, imitation or confusion with our brands could adversely affect our reputation and impair the value of our brands, which in turn could negatively impact sales of our branded products, our share and our gross margin, as well as increase our administrative costs related to brand protection and counterfeit detection and prosecution.

Flash Ventures’ equipment lease agreements contain covenants and other cancellation events, and cancellation of the leases would harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

Flash Ventures sells to and leases back a portion of its equipment from a consortium of financial institutions. Most of the lease obligations are guaranteed 50% by us and 50% by Kioxia. Some of the lease obligations are guaranteed in full by us. As of July 3, 2020, the portion of outstanding obligations covered by our guarantees totaled approximately $1.90 billion, based upon the Japanese yen to U.S. dollar exchange rate at July 3, 2020. The leases are subject to customary covenants and cancellation events that relate to Flash Ventures and each of the guarantors. Cancellation events include, among other things, an assignment of all or a substantial part of a guarantor’s business and acceleration of other monetary debts of Flash Ventures or a guarantor above a specified threshold. If a cancellation event were to occur, Flash Ventures would be required to negotiate a resolution with the other parties to the lease transactions to avoid cancellation and acceleration of the lease obligations. Such resolution could include, among other things, supplementary security to be supplied by us, increased interest rates or waiver fees. If a resolution is not reached, we may be required to pay all of the outstanding lease obligations covered by our guarantees, which would significantly reduce our cash position and may force us to seek additional financing, which may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

If we do not resume paying a quarterly cash dividend or repurchasing shares of our common stock, the market price for our common stock could decline.

In April 2020, we suspended our quarterly cash dividend policy. In addition, we have not repurchased shares of our common stock pursuant to our stock repurchase program since the first quarter of fiscal 2019. Although we will reevaluate paying cash dividends and repurchasing shares of our common stock when appropriate, there can be no assurance if, when or at what level we may resume these activities. If we choose not to or are unable to resume paying cash dividends or repurchasing shares of our common stock in the future, the market price of our common stock may decline.

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Fluctuations in currency exchange rates as a result of our international operations may negatively affect our operating results.

Because we manufacture and sell our products abroad, our revenue, cost of revenue, margins, operating costs and cash flows are impacted by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. If the U.S. dollar exhibits sustained weakness against most foreign currencies, the U.S. dollar equivalents of unhedged manufacturing costs could increase because a significant portion of our production costs are foreign-currency denominated. Conversely, there would not be an offsetting impact to revenues since revenues are substantially U.S. dollar denominated. Additionally, we negotiate and procure some of our component requirements in U.S. dollars from non-U.S. based vendors. If the U.S. dollar weakens against other foreign currencies, some of our component suppliers may increase the price they charge for their components in order to maintain an equivalent profit margin. In addition, our purchases of flash-based memory from Flash Ventures and our investment in Flash Ventures are denominated in Japanese yen. If the Japanese yen appreciates against the U.S. dollar, our cost of purchasing flash-based memory wafers and the cost to us of future capital funding of Flash Ventures would increase. If any of these events occur, they could have a negative impact on our operating results.

Prices for our products are substantially U.S. dollar denominated, even when sold to customers that are located outside the U.S. Therefore, as a substantial portion of our sales are from countries outside the U.S., fluctuations in currency exchanges rates, most notably the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against other foreign currencies, contribute to variations in sales of products in impacted jurisdictions and could adversely impact demand and revenue growth. In addition, currency variations can adversely affect margins on sales of our products in countries outside the U.S.

We attempt to manage the impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes by, among other things, entering into short-term foreign exchange contracts. However, these contracts may not cover our full exposure, and can be canceled by the counterparty if currency controls are put in place. Thus, our decisions and hedging strategy with respect to currency risks may not be successful and harm our operating results. Further, the ability to enter into foreign exchange contracts with financial institutions is based upon our available credit from such institutions and compliance with covenants and other restrictions. Operating losses, third party downgrades of our credit rating or instability in the worldwide financial markets could impact our ability to effectively manage our foreign currency exchange rate risk. Hedging also exposes us to the credit risk of our counterparty financial institutions.

Increases in our customers’ credit risk could result in credit losses and term extensions under existing contracts with customers with credit losses could result in an increase in our operating costs.

Some of our OEM customers have adopted a subcontractor model that requires us to contract directly with companies, such as ODMs, that provide manufacturing and fulfillment services to our OEM customers. Because these subcontractors are generally not as well capitalized as our direct OEM customers, this subcontractor model exposes us to increased credit risks. Our agreements with our OEM customers may not permit us to increase our product prices to alleviate this increased credit risk. Additionally, as we attempt to expand our OEM and distribution channel sales into emerging economies such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, the customers with the most success in these regions may have relatively short operating histories, making it more difficult for us to accurately assess the associated credit risks. Our customers’ credit risk may also be exacerbated by an economic downturn or other adverse global or regional economic conditions. Any credit losses we may suffer as a result of these increased risks, or as a result of credit losses from any significant customer, especially in situations where there are term extensions under existing contracts with such customers, would increase our operating costs, which may negatively impact our operating results.

The market price of our common stock is volatile.

The market price of our common stock has been, and may continue to be, volatile. Factors that may significantly affect the market price of our common stock include the following:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results, including those resulting from the seasonality of our business;

perceptions about our strategic relationships and joint ventures, access to supply of flash-based memory, new technologies and technology transitions;

announcements of technological innovations or new products by us or our competitors, which may decrease the volume and profitability of sales of our existing products and increase the risk of inventory obsolescence;
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strategic actions by us or competitors, such as acquisitions and restructurings;

periods of severe pricing pressures due to oversupply or price erosion resulting from competitive pressures or industry consolidation;

proposed or adopted regulatory changes or developments or anticipated or pending investigations, proceedings or litigation that involve or affect us or our competitors;

adverse publicity, whether or not justified;

failure to meet analysts’ revenue or earnings estimates or changes in financial estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts relating specifically to us or the storage industry in general;

announcements relating to dividends and share repurchases; and

macroeconomic conditions or other events that affect the market generally and, in particular, developments or events impacting our industry.

In addition, the sale of substantial amounts of shares of our common stock, or the perception that these sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Further, the stock market is subject to fluctuations in the stock prices and trading volumes that affect the market prices of the stock of public companies, including us. These broad market fluctuations have adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect the market price of shares of our common stock. For example, expectations concerning general economic conditions may cause the stock market to experience extreme price and volume fluctuations from time to time that particularly affect the stock prices of many high technology companies. These fluctuations may be unrelated to the operating performance of the companies.

Securities class action lawsuits are often brought against companies after periods of volatility in the market price of their securities. A number of such suits have been filed against us in the past, and should any new lawsuits be filed, such matters could result in substantial costs and a diversion of resources and management’s attention.

Further, a sustained decline in our stock price or market capitalization are among the factors that may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our long-lived assets or goodwill may be impaired and, if an impairment review is triggered, could require us to record a significant charge to earnings in our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Our cash balances and investment portfolio are subject to various risks, any of which could adversely impact our financial position.

Given the international footprint of our business, we have both domestic and international cash balances. From time to time, our investment portfolio may include various holdings, security types, and maturities. Our investment portfolio is subject to general credit, liquidity, market, political, sovereign and interest rate risks, which may be exacerbated by unusual events that affect global financial markets. Our investment portfolio may include investment grade corporate securities, bank deposits, asset backed securities and U.S. government and agency securities. If global credit and equity markets experience prolonged periods of decline, or if there is a downgrade of the U.S. government credit rating due to an actual or threatened default on government debt, our investment portfolio may be adversely impacted and we could determine that our investments may experience an other-than-temporary decline in fair value, requiring impairment charges that could adversely affect our financial results. A failure of any of these financial institutions in which deposits exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) limits could also have an adverse impact on our financial position.

In addition, if we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to repay our indebtedness, fund acquisitions, pay dividends, or repurchase shares of our common stock, we may choose or be required to increase our borrowings, if available, or to repatriate funds to the U.S. at an additional tax cost. We must comply with regulations regarding the conversion and distribution of funds earned in the local currencies of various countries. If we cannot comply with these or other applicable regulations, we may face increased difficulties in using cash generated in these countries.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

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Item 2. Properties

Our principal executive offices are located in San Jose, California. Our leased facilities are occupied under leases that expire at various times through 2034. Our principal manufacturing, R&D, marketing and administrative facilities as of July 3, 2020 were as follows:
LocationBuildings Owned or LeasedApproximate Square FootageDescription
United States
California
FremontLeased290,000 Manufacturing of head wafers and R&D
IrvineLeased434,000 R&D, administrative, marketing and sales
MilpitasOwned589,000 R&D, marketing and sales, and administrative
San JoseOwned and Leased2,561,000 Manufacturing of head wafers, head, media and product development, R&D, administrative, marketing and sales
Colorado
LongmontLeased87,000 R&D
Colorado SpringsLeased59,000 R&D
Minnesota
RochesterLeased121,000 Product development
Asia
China
ShanghaiOwned774,000 Assembly and test of SSDs
ShenzhenOwned and Leased563,000 Manufacturing of media
Japan
FujisawaOwned661,000 Product development
Malaysia
JohorOwned277,000 Manufacturing of substrates
Kuala LumpurOwned145,000 
R&D and administrative
KuchingOwned285,000 Manufacturing and development of substrates
PenangOwned1,683,000 Assembly and test of SSDs, manufacturing of media, and R&D
Philippines
LagunaOwned632,000 Manufacturing of HGAs and slider fabrication
Thailand
Bang Pa-InOwned1,578,000 Slider fabrication, manufacturing of HDDs and HGAs, and R&D
PrachinburiOwned838,000 Manufacturing of HDDs
India
BangaloreOwned and Leased638,000 R&D and administrative
Middle East
Israel
Kfar SabaOwned167,000 R&D
TefenOwned64,000 R&D

We also lease office space in various other locations throughout the world primarily for R&D, sales, operations, administration and technical support. We believe our present facilities are adequate for our current needs, although we upgrade our facilities from time to time to meet anticipated future technological and market requirements. In general, new manufacturing facilities can be developed and become operational within approximately nine to eighteen months should we require such additional facilities.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

For a description of our legal proceedings, see Part II, Item 8, Note 16, Legal Proceedings, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated by reference in response to this item.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information for Common Stock

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “WDC.” The approximate number of holders of record of our common stock as of August 19, 2020 was 920.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

We have not repurchased shares of our common stock pursuant to our stock repurchase program since the first quarter of fiscal 2019. For additional information about our share repurchase program see Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Stock Repurchase Program.

Dividends

In April 2020, we suspended our quarterly cash dividend policy. For more information about our dividend policy see Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Cash Dividends.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return of our common stock with the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Technology Hardware & Equipment Index for the five years ended July 3, 2020. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in our common stock at the close of market on July 2, 2015 and that all dividends were reinvested. Stockholder returns over the indicated period should not be considered indicative of future stockholder returns.
TOTAL RETURN TO STOCKHOLDERS
(Assumes $100 investment on July 2, 2015)
https://cdn.kscope.io/126b89d1e311dea78557f7261577e114-wdc-20200703_g2.jpg





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Total Return Analysis
July 2,
2015
July 1,
2016
June 30,
2017
June 29,
2018
June 28,
2019
July 3,
2020
Western Digital Corporation$100.00 $59.58 $116.72 $104.45 $67.05 $61.61 
S&P 500 Index$100.00 $103.99 $122.60 $140.23 $154.83 $166.45 
Dow Jones U.S. Technology Hardware & Equipment Index$100.00 $92.31 $130.38 $169.84 $183.12 $266.37 

The stock performance graph shall not be deemed soliciting material or to be filed with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, nor shall it be incorporated by reference into any past or future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent we specifically request that it be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporate it by reference into a filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

Financial Highlights

This selected consolidated financial data should be read together with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as the section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
July 3,
2020
June 28,
2019
June 29,
2018
June 30,
2017
July 1,
2016
(in millions, except per share and employee data)
Revenue, net$16,736 $16,569 $20,647 $19,093 $12,994 
Gross profit3,781 3,752 7,705 6,072 3,435 
Net income (loss)(250)(754)675 397 242 
Income (loss) per common share:
Basic$(0.84)$(2.58)$2.27 $1.38 $1.01 
Diluted$(0.84)$(2.58)$2.20 $1.34 $1.00 
Cash dividends declared per common share$1.50 $2.00 $2.00 $2.00 $2.00 
Working capital$4,642 $4,660 $6,182 $6,712 $5,635 
Total assets$25,662 $26,370 $29,235 $29,860 $32,862 
Long-term debt$9,289 $10,246 $10,993 $12,918 $13,660 
Shareholders’ equity$9,551 $9,967 $11,531 $11,418 $11,145 
Number of employees (1)
63,800 61,800 71,600 67,600 72,900 

(1) Excludes temporary employees and contractors.

Results for Kazan Networks, Inc., Tegile Systems, Inc., Upthere, Inc., and SanDisk Corporation, which were acquired on September 10, 2019, September 15, 2017, August 25, 2017 and May 12, 2016, respectively, are included in our operating results only after their respective dates of acquisition.
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Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, and should be read in conjunction with the disclosures we make concerning risks and other factors that may affect our business and operating results. You should read this information in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See also “Forward-Looking Statements” immediately prior to Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our Company

We are a leading developer, manufacturer and provider of data storage devices and solutions that address the evolving needs of the information technology (“IT”) industry and the infrastructure that enables the proliferation of data in virtually every other industry. We create environments for data to thrive. We drive the innovation needed to help customers capture, preserve, access and transform an ever-increasing diversity of data. Everywhere data lives, from advanced data centers to mobile sensors to personal devices, our industry-leading solutions deliver the possibilities of data.

Our broad portfolio of technology and products address the following key end markets: Client Devices; Data Center Devices and Solutions; and Client Solutions. We also generate license and royalty revenue from our extensive intellectual property (“IP”), which is included in each of these three end market categories.

Our fiscal year ends on the Friday nearest to June 30 and typically consists of 52 weeks. Approximately every five to six years, we report a 53-week fiscal year to align the fiscal year with the foregoing policy. Fiscal year 2020, which ended on July 3, 2020, is comprised of 53 weeks, with the first quarter consisting of 14 weeks and the remaining quarters consisting of 13 weeks each. Fiscal years 2019, which ended on June 28, 2019, and 2018, which ended on June 29, 2018, were each comprised of 52 weeks, with all quarters presented consisting of 13 weeks.

Key Developments

COVID-19 Pandemic

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic, and the United States declared a national emergency. In the intervening months, COVID-19 has spread globally and led governments and other authorities around the world, including federal, state and local authorities in the United States, to impose measures intended to reduce its spread, including restrictions on freedom of movement and business operations such as travel bans, border closings, business limitations and closures (subject to exceptions for essential operations and businesses), quarantines and shelter-in-place orders.
Although some of these governmental restrictions have since been lifted or scaled back, a recent surge of COVID-19 infections has resulted in the re-imposition of certain restrictions and may lead to other restrictions being re-implemented in response to efforts to reduce the spread of COVID-19. These measures may remain in place for a significant amount of time. In light of these events, we have taken actions to protect the health and safety of our employees while continuing to serve our global customers as an essential business. We have implemented more thorough sanitation practices as outlined by health organizations and instituted social distancing policies at our locations around the world, including working from home, limiting the number of employees attending meetings, reducing the number of people in our sites at any one time, and suspending employee travel. These actions have resulted in some reductions of production levels, particularly impacting our manufacture of hard drives, as we adapt to a more limited number of employees in facilities and, as a result, we have incurred charges of approximately $110 million in costs related to under-absorbed overhead and higher logistics and other costs during the year ended July 3, 2020.

As an essential business, we continue to provide products and solutions that enable the proliferation of data and facilitate the sharing of information remotely, which has become more critical as much of the world is interacting from areas of self-isolation. While we have experienced some reductions of sales in certain areas such as retail in our Client Solutions end market where brick and mortar operations have been impacted, we have seen strong demand for capacity enterprise products in our Data Center Devices and Solutions end market as the current environment has accelerated the movement to the cloud. As such, our net revenue for the year ended July 3, 2020 was not significantly impacted by COVID-19. We currently expect some softening in Cloud demand as these customers absorb recent capacity expansions, but expect some improvement in retail demand as countries begin to ease their lockdown restrictions and as brick and mortar locations shift more of their operations online. However, we cannot predict the duration of this crisis and how demand may change if it becomes more protracted.

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We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions altering our business operations that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers, and stakeholders, or as required by federal, state, or local authorities. See “The COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition” in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information regarding the risks we face as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Flash Ventures

Through our three business ventures with Kioxia Corporation (“Kioxia”), referred to as “Flash Ventures”, we and Kioxia operate flash-based memory wafer manufacturing facilities in Japan. We are obligated to pay for variable costs incurred in producing our share of Flash Ventures’ flash-based memory wafer supply, based on our three-month forecast, which generally equals 50% of Flash Ventures’ output. In addition, we are obligated to pay for half of Flash Ventures’ fixed costs regardless of the output we choose to purchase. We are also obligated to fund 49.9% to 50% of each Flash Ventures entity’s capital investments to the extent that Flash Ventures entity’s operating cash flow is insufficient to fund these investments.

Since its inception, Flash Ventures’ primary manufacturing site has been located in Yokkaichi, Japan, which currently includes five wafer fabrication facilities. These facilities historically operated near 100% of their manufacturing capacity. As a result of supply/demand imbalance for flash-based products arising in the prior year, we temporarily reduced our utilization of our share of Flash Ventures’ manufacturing capacity to an abnormally low level for several quarters to more closely align our flash-based wafer supply with the projected demand. As a result of this temporary reduction to abnormally low production levels, we incurred $264 million associated with the reduction in utilization, which was recorded as a charge to cost of revenue in the year ended June 28, 2019. In addition, levels at the Yokkaichi site were temporarily reduced as a result of an unexpected power outage incident that occurred in the Yokkaichi region on June 15, 2019. The power outage incident impacted the facilities and process tools and resulted in the damage of flash wafers in production. The incident resulted in a reduction of our flash wafer availability by approximately 4 exabytes, the majority of which was contained in the first quarter of fiscal year 2020. As a result of this power outage incident, we incurred aggregate charges of $68 million and $145 million recorded in Cost of revenue in the years ended July 3, 2020 and June 28, 2019, respectively, which primarily consisted of the write-off of damaged inventory and unabsorbed manufacturing overhead costs. We continue to pursue recovery of our losses associated with this event; however, the total amount of recovery cannot be estimated at this time.

In May 2019, we entered into additional agreements with Kioxia to extend Flash Ventures to a new wafer fabrication facility, known as “K1,” located in Kitakami, Japan. The primary purpose of K1 is to provide clean room space to continue the transition of existing flash-based wafer capacity to newer technology nodes. Output from the initial production line at K1 began in the third quarter of fiscal year 2020, although meaningful output from K1 is not expected to begin until the end of calendar 2020. We have paid for most of our share of initial K1 equipment investments and relocation costs. Other period expenses associated with the initial production ramp at K1 will begin trailing off as output increases toward the end of the calendar year. We also agreed to prepay an aggregate of approximately $360 million over a 3-year period beginning in the first half of fiscal year 2020 toward K1 building depreciation, to be credited against future wafer charges. As of July 3, 2020, remaining committed prepayments totaled $206 million.

Exit of Storage Systems Business

In September 2019, we announced our intention to exit Storage Systems, which consisted of IntelliFlash and ActiveScale. These actions allow us to redirect investments to other higher value priorities. In November 2019, we completed the sale of IntelliFlash for a price of $28 million, to be collected over the next three years. The sale of our IntelliFlash business included an immaterial amount of inventory, other tangible and intangible assets, and goodwill and resulted in a gain of approximately $17 million recorded in Employee termination, asset impairment, and other charges in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended July 3, 2020. Additionally, in March 2020, we completed the sale of ActiveScale. The net assets sold and the proceeds from the sale of ActiveScale were not material.

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Results of Operations

Summary Comparison of 2020, 2019 and 2018

The following table sets forth, for the periods presented, selected summary information from our Consolidated Statements of Operations by dollars and percentage of net revenue(1):
202020192018
(in millions, except percentages)
Revenue, net$16,736 100.0 %$16,569 100.0 %$20,647 100.0 %
Cost of revenue12,955 77.4 12,817 77.4 12,942 62.7 
Gross profit3,781 22.6 3,752 22.6 7,705 37.3 
Operating Expenses:
Research and development2,261 13.5 2,182 13.2 2,400 11.6 
Selling, general and administrative1,153 6.9 1,317 7.9 1,473 7.1 
Employee termination, asset impairment, and other charges32 0.2 166 1.0 215 1.0 
Total operating expenses3,446 20.6 3,665 22.1 4,088 19.8 
Operating income335 2.0 87 0.5 3,617 17.5 
Interest and other income (expense):
Interest income28 0.2 57 0.3 60 0.3 
Interest expense(413)(2.5)(469)(2.8)(676)(3.3)
Other income (expense), net4  38 0.2 (916)(4.4)
Total interest and other expense, net(381)(2.3)(374)(2.3)(1,532)(7.4)
Income (loss) before taxes(46)(0.3)(287)(1.7)2,085 10.1 
Income tax expense204 1.2 467 2.8 1,410 6.8 
Net income (loss)$(250)(1.5)%$(754)(4.6)%$675 3.3 %
(1) Percentages may not total due to rounding.


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The following table sets forth, for the periods presented, summary information regarding our revenue(1):

Year Ended
202020192018
(in millions)
Revenue by Product
Hard disk drives (“HDD”)$8,967 $8,746 $10,698 
Flash-based7,769 7,823 9,949 
Total Revenue$16,736 $16,569 $20,647 
Revenue by End Market
Client Devices$7,160 $8,095 $10,108 
Data Center Devices & Solutions6,228 5,038 6,075 
Client Solutions3,348 3,436 4,464 
Total Revenue$16,736 $16,569 $20,647 
Revenue by Geography
Americas$5,444 $4,361 $5,622 
Europe, Middle East and Africa2,926 3,109 3,858 
Asia8,366 9,099 11,167 
Total Revenue$16,736 $16,569 $20,647 
Exabytes Shipped518 383 389 


(1) Revenue for 2020 and 2019 are presented in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606. Revenue for 2018 is presented in accordance with ASC Topic 605. For information related to our transition from Topic 605 to Topic 606, see Part II, Item 8, Note 1, Organization and Basis of Presentation, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Net Revenue

Net revenue was relatively flat in 2020 compared to 2019. Higher volumes of memory generated approximately 30 percentage points of exabyte growth year over year, split relatively evenly between HDD and Flash products, which was largely offset by lower average selling prices. Our revenue for Data Center Devices and Solutions increased 24% year over year, reflecting approximately 46 percentage points of growth in exabytes of storage, primarily driven by strength in capacity enterprise HDD and Flash, which we believe reflects an acceleration in the movement to cloud driven by remote working conditions as a result of COVID-19. This growth was partially offset by lower average selling prices. Client Devices revenue declined 12% year over year, which primarily reflects lower average selling prices in HDD and mobility products. Client Solutions revenue declined 3% year over year, which reflects a decline of approximately 12 percentage points due to lower average selling prices, primarily on retail products, partially offset by an increase in volume of Flash products.

The changes in net revenue by geography reflect a decrease in Asia in 2020 primarily driven by our decision to limit our participation in the mobile market and our exit from multi-chip package solutions sales, resulting in lower sales to manufacturers in the Asia region, and a slight increase in the Americas driven by increased sales of capacity enterprise HDD.

For 2020, 2019 and 2018, our top 10 customers accounted for 42%, 45% and 42%, respectively, of our net revenue. For each of 2020, 2019 and 2018, no single customer accounted for 10% or more of our net revenue.

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Consistent with standard industry practice, we have sales incentive and marketing programs that provide customers with price protection and other incentives or reimbursements that are recorded as a reduction to gross revenue. For 2020, 2019 and 2018, these programs represented 16%, 15% and 12%, respectively, of gross revenues, and adjustments to revenue due to changes in accruals for these programs have generally averaged less than 1% of gross revenue over the last three fiscal years. The amounts attributed to our sales incentive and marketing programs generally vary according to several factors including industry conditions, list pricing strategies, seasonal demand, competitor actions, channel mix and overall availability of products. Changes in future customer demand and market conditions may require us to adjust our incentive programs as a percentage of gross revenue.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Gross profit and gross margin for 2020 were relatively flat compared to 2019, which reflected lower aggregate charges for amortization expense on acquired intangible assets, manufacturing underutilization charges, and charges related to the power outage incident, which aggregated $678 million for 2020 compared to $1.2 billion for 2019. These lower costs were offset by the impact of lower average selling prices, as noted above; the impact of COVID-related costs; and higher per-unit overhead costs in HDD as we ramp up production on our new 18-terabyte drives. We expect gross margins to be constrained in the near term as we continue to ramp up production on our new drives and continue to incur COVID-related costs.

Operating Expenses

Research and development (“R&D”) expense increased $79 million in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily due to approximately $30 million of additional expense related to the additional week in the current year and increased variable compensation, partially offset by savings from our exit from the storage systems business and lower outside services and travel and entertainment (“T&E”) spending.

Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense decreased $164 million in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily due to savings realized from our exit from the storage systems business, lower outside services and T&E spending, partially offset by approximately $10 million of additional expense related to the additional week in the current year and increased variable compensation.

Employee termination, asset impairment and other charges decreased from the prior year as many of the actions initiated in the prior year have been substantially completed. For additional information regarding employee termination, asset impairment and other charges, see Part II, Item 8, Note 15, Employee Termination, Asset Impairment and Other Charges, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Interest and Other Income (Expense)

The decreases in total interest and other expense, net in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily reflect decreases in interest expense resulting from the pay-down of principal on our debt and lower index rates, partially offset by decreases in Interest income resulting from lower invested cash and lower rates of return, as well as lower gains on foreign currency transactions.

Income Tax Expense

The following table sets forth income tax information from our Consolidated Statements of Operations by dollar and effective tax rate:
 202020192018
(in millions, except percentages)
Income (loss) before taxes$(46)$(287)$2,085 
Income tax expense204 467 1,410 
Effective tax rate(443)%(163)%68 %

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The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Act”) includes a broad range of tax reform proposals affecting businesses. We completed our accounting for the tax effects of the enactment of the 2017 Act during the second quarter of fiscal 2019. However, the U.S. Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) have issued tax guidance on certain provisions of the 2017 Act since the enactment date, and we anticipate the issuance of additional regulatory and interpretive guidance. We applied a reasonable interpretation of the 2017 Act along with the then-available guidance in finalizing our accounting for the tax effects of the 2017 Act. Any additional regulatory or interpretive guidance would constitute new information, which may require further refinements to our estimates in future periods.

The primary drivers of the difference between the effective tax rate for 2020 and the U.S. Federal statutory rate of 21% are the relative mix of earnings and losses by jurisdiction, the deduction for foreign derived intangible income, credits and tax holidays in Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand that will expire at various dates during fiscal years 2021 through 2030. In addition, the effective tax rate for 2020 includes the discrete effect of a de-recognition of $31 million for certain deferred tax assets associated with creditable foreign withholding taxes due to the issuance of final regulatory guidance. The regulatory guidance does not preclude us from potentially claiming these creditable taxes as a period benefit when paid.

The primary driver of the difference between the effective tax rate for the year ended June 28, 2019 and the U.S. Federal statutory rate of 21% is the discrete effect of the finalization of the accounting for the tax effects of the enactment of the 2017 Act. These discrete effects consist of $119 million related to the mandatory deemed repatriation tax and $189 million related to the decision to change our indefinite reinvestment assertion. The remaining difference is attributable primarily to a change in the estimated effective tax rate due to changes in the relative mix of earnings by jurisdiction, partially offset by credits and tax holidays.

Our future effective tax rate is subject to future regulatory developments and changes in the mix of our U.S. earnings compared to foreign earnings. Our total tax expense in future fiscal years may also vary as a result of discrete items such as excess tax benefits or deficiencies.

For additional information regarding Income tax expense (benefit), see Part II, Item 8, Note 13, Income Tax Expense, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

A discussion of our results of operations for 2018, including a comparison of such results of operations to 2019, is included in Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 28, 2019 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 27, 2019.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

The following table summarizes our statements of cash flows:
 202020192018
(in millions)
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$824 $1,547 $4,205 
Investing activities278 (1,272)(1,655)
Financing activities(1,508)(1,829)(3,900)
 Effect of exchange rate changes on cash(1)4 1 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents$(407)$(1,550)$(1,349)

We believe our cash, cash equivalents and cash generated from operations as well as our available credit facilities will be sufficient to meet our working capital, debt and capital expenditure needs for at least the next twelve months. Our ability to sustain our working capital position is subject to a number of risks that we discuss in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

During fiscal 2021, we expect expenditures for property, plant and equipment for our company plus our portion of the capital expenditures by our Flash Ventures joint venture with Kioxia for its operations to aggregate approximately $3.1 billion. After consideration of the Flash Ventures’ lease financing of its capital expenditures and net operating cash flow, we expect net cash used for our purchases of property, plant and equipment and net activity in notes receivable relating to Flash Ventures to be a cash outflow of approximately $1.3 billion during fiscal 2021. The total expected cash to be used could vary depending on the timing and completion of various capital projects and the availability, timing and terms of related financing.

During fiscal 2019, we made the determination that it was our intention to repatriate all of our foreign undistributed earnings as a result of the 2017 Act, except a portion of our foreign undistributed earnings, which could result in additional federal taxes based on interpretive guidance issued by the IRS. After consideration of this interpretative guidance affecting the taxation of a certain portion of our foreign undistributed earnings, we made the determination that we do not intend to repatriate this portion of our foreign undistributed earnings and did not establish an accrual for this liability of $1.25 billion.
A total of $2.12 billion and $2.37 billion of our Cash and cash equivalents was held outside of the U.S. as of July 3, 2020 and June 28, 2019, respectively. As a result of the change in our permanent reinvestment assertion, there are no material tax consequences that were not previously accrued for on the repatriation of this cash.

Operating Activities

Cash flow from operating activities primarily consists of net income, adjusted for non-cash charges, plus or minus changes in operating assets and liabilities. This represents our principal source of cash. Net cash used for changes in operating assets and liabilities was $757 million for 2020, as compared to $260 million net cash used for changes in operating assets and liabilities for 2019. Changes in our operating assets and liabilities are largely affected by our working capital requirements, which are dependent on the effective management of our cash conversion cycle as well as timing of payments for taxes. Our cash conversion cycle measures how quickly we can convert our products into cash through sales. The cash conversion cycles were as follows:
202020192018
(in days)
Days sales outstanding52 26 39 
Days in inventory85 93 83 
Days payables outstanding(66)(54)(71)
Cash conversion cycle71 65 51 

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Changes in days sales outstanding (“DSO”) are generally due to the linearity of shipments. Changes in days in inventory (“DIO”) are generally related to the timing of inventory builds. Changes in days payables outstanding (“DPO”) are generally related to production volume and the timing of purchases during the period. From time to time, we modify the timing of payments to our vendors. We make modifications primarily to manage our vendor relationships and to manage our cash flows, including our cash balances. Generally, we make the payment term modifications through negotiations with our vendors or by granting to, or receiving from, our vendors’ payment term accommodations.

For 2020, DSO increased by 26 days over the prior year, reflecting 6 days for lower factoring of receivables, and 4 days resulting from balance sheet reclassifications of certain customer incentives in connection with the adoption of ASC Topic 606 related to recognition of agreements with customers. The additional increase primarily reflects the timing of shipments and customer collections. We have seen no significant deterioration in our receivables as a result of COVID-19. DIO decreased by 8 days over the prior year, reflecting higher stocking levels of HDD inventory in the prior year in response to the plant closure in Kuala Lumpur. DPO increased by 12 days over the prior year, primarily reflecting resumptions of flash production volumes as well as routine variations in the timing of purchases and payments during the period.

Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities in 2020 primarily consisted of a $931 million net decrease in notes receivable issuances to Flash Ventures, partially offset by $647 million of capital expenditures and $22 million for acquisitions. Net cash used in investing activities in 2019 primarily consisted of $876 million of capital expenditures and a net $598 million increase in notes receivable issuances to Flash Ventures to fund its capital expansion.

Our cash equivalents are primarily invested in money market funds that invest in U.S. Treasury securities and U.S. Government agency securities. In addition, from time to time, we invest directly in U.S. Treasury securities, U.S. and international government agency securities, certificates of deposit, asset backed securities and corporate and municipal notes and bonds.

Financing Activities

During 2020, net cash used in financing activities primarily consisted of $982 million for repayment of debt (of which $257 million was for scheduled principal payments and $725 million was for voluntary prepayments), $595 million to pay dividends on our common stock and $72 million for taxes paid on vested stock awards under employee stock plans, partially offset by $141 million of cash from the issuance of stock under our employee stock plans. Net cash used in financing activities in 2019 primarily consisted of $681 million for the repayment of our revolving credit facility and other debt, $584 million to pay dividends on our common stock, and $563 million for share repurchases. On July 31, 2020, we made an incremental voluntary prepayment of $150 million on our Term Loan B-4.

In April 2020, we suspended our dividend policy to reinvest in the business and to support our ongoing deleveraging efforts. We will reevaluate our dividend policy as our leverage ratio improves.

A discussion of our cash flows for the year ended June 29, 2018 is included in Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 28, 2019 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 27, 2019.


Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Other than the commitments related to Flash Ventures incurred in the normal course of business and certain indemnification provisions (see “Short and Long-term Liquidity-Contractual Obligations and Commitments” below), we do not have any other material off-balance sheet financing arrangements or liabilities, guarantee contracts, retained or contingent interests in transferred assets, or any other obligation arising out of a material variable interest in an unconsolidated entity. We do not have any majority-owned subsidiaries that are not included in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Additionally, with the exception of Flash Ventures and our joint venture with Unisplendour Corporation Limited and Unissoft (Wuxi) Group Co. Ltd. (“Unis”), referred to as the “Unis Venture”, we do not have an interest in, or relationships with, any variable interest entities. For additional information regarding our off-balance sheet arrangements, see Part II, Item 8, Note 8, Related Parties and Related Commitments and Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Short and Long-term Liquidity

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

The following is a summary of our known contractual cash obligations and commercial commitments as of July 3, 2020:
Total1 Year (2021)2-3 Years (2022-2023)4-5 Years (2024-2025)More than 5 Years (Beyond 2025)
(in millions)
Long-term debt, including current portion(1)
$9,711 $286 $6,025 $1,100 $2,300 
Interest on debt1,152 289 519 235 109 
Flash Ventures related commitments(2)
5,786 2,793 2,171 688 134 
Operating leases304 45 60 55 144 
Purchase obligations and other commitments3,657 1,851 1,146 470 190 
Mandatory Deemed Repatriation Tax1,029 106 208 417 298 
Total$21,639 $5,370 $10,129 $2,965 $3,175 

(1)Principal portion of debt, excluding discounts and issuance costs.
(2)Includes reimbursement for depreciation and lease payments on owned and committed equipment, funding commitments for loans and equity investments and payments for other committed expenses, including R&D and building depreciation. Funding commitments assume no additional operating lease guarantees. Additional operating lease guarantees can reduce funding commitments.

Debt

In addition to our existing debt, we have $2.25 billion available under our revolving credit facility, subject to customary conditions under the credit agreement. Additional information regarding our indebtedness, including information about availability under our revolving credit facility and the principal repayment terms, interest rates, covenants and other key terms of our outstanding indebtedness, is included in Part II, Item 8, Note 6, Debt, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and our term loan A-1 due 2023 requires us to comply with certain financial covenants, consisting of a leverage ratio and an interest coverage ratio. As of July 3, 2020, we were in compliance with these financial covenants.

Flash Ventures

Flash Ventures sells to and leases back from a consortium of financial institutions a portion of its tools and has entered into equipment lease agreements of which we guarantee half or all of the outstanding obligations under each lease agreement. The leases are subject to customary covenants and cancellation events that relate to Flash Ventures and each of the guarantors. The occurrence of a cancellation event could result in an acceleration of the lease obligations and a call on our guarantees. As of July 3, 2020, we were in compliance with all covenants under these Japanese lease facilities. See Part II, Item 8, Note 8, Related Parties and Related Commitments and Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding Flash Ventures.

Purchase Obligations and Other Commitments

In the normal course of business, we enter into purchase orders with suppliers for the purchase of components used to manufacture our products. These purchase orders generally cover forecasted component supplies needed for production during the next quarter, are recorded as a liability upon receipt of the components, and generally may be changed or canceled at any time prior to shipment of the components. We also enter into long-term agreements with suppliers that contain fixed future commitments, which are contingent on certain conditions such as performance, quality and technology of the vendor’s components. These arrangements are included under “Purchase obligations” in the table above.

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Mandatory Deemed Repatriation Tax

The following is a summary of our estimated mandatory deemed repatriation tax obligations that are payable in the following fiscal years (in millions):
2021106 
2022104 
2023104 
2024179 
2025238 
2026298 
Total$1,029 

For additional information regarding our estimate of the total tax liability for the mandatory deemed repatriation tax, see Part II, Item 8, Note 13, Income Tax Expense, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 28, 2019.

Unrecognized Tax Benefits

As of July 3, 2020, the liability for unrecognized tax benefits (excluding accrued interest and penalties) was approximately $717 million. Accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as of July 3, 2020 was approximately $137 million. Of these amounts, approximately $720 million could result in potential cash payments. We are not able to provide a reasonable estimate of the timing of future tax payments related to these obligations.

Interest Rate Swap

We have generally held a balance of fixed and variable rate debt. At July 3, 2020, we had $6.28 billion of variable rate debt, comprising 65% of the par value of our debt. To balance the portfolio and moderate our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates underlying our variable debt, we entered into pay-fixed interest rate swaps on $2.00 billion notional amount, which effectively converts a portion of our term loan to fixed rates through February 2023. After giving effect to the $2.00 billion of interest rate swaps, we effectively had $4.28 billion of Long-term debt subject to variations in interest rates and a one percent increase in the variable rate of interest would increase annual interest expense by $43 million.

Foreign Exchange Contracts

We purchase foreign exchange contracts to hedge the impact of foreign currency fluctuations on certain underlying assets, liabilities and commitments for Operating expenses and product costs denominated in foreign currencies. For a description of our current foreign exchange contract commitments, see Part II, Item 8, Note 5, Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Indemnifications

In the ordinary course of business, we may provide indemnifications of varying scope and terms to customers, vendors, lessors, business partners and other parties with respect to certain matters, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of our breach of agreements, products or services to be provided by us, environmental compliance or from IP infringement claims made by third parties. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and certain of our officers that will require us, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers. We maintain director and officer insurance, which may cover certain liabilities arising from our obligation to indemnify our directors and officers in certain circumstances.

It is not possible to determine the maximum potential amount under these indemnification agreements due to the limited history of prior indemnification claims and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. Such indemnification agreements may not be subject to maximum loss clauses. Historically, we have not incurred material costs as a result of obligations under these agreements.
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Stock Repurchase Program

Our Board of Directors has authorized a stock repurchase program for the repurchase of up to $5.00 billion of our common stock, which authorization is effective through July 25, 2023. For the year ended July 3, 2020, we did not make any stock repurchases and have not repurchased any shares of our common stock pursuant to our stock repurchase program since the first quarter of fiscal 2019. Although we will reevaluate the repurchasing of our common stock when appropriate, there can be no assurance if, when or at what level we may resume such activity. The remaining amount available to be repurchased under our current stock repurchase program as of July 3, 2020 was $4.50 billion. Repurchases under the stock repurchase program may be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions and may be made under a Rule 10b5-1 plan.

Cash Dividend

We issued a quarterly cash dividend from the first quarter of fiscal 2013 up to the third quarter of fiscal 2020. During the year ended July 3, 2020, we declared aggregate cash dividends of $1.50 per share on our outstanding common stock totaling $449 million. In April 2020, we suspended our dividend to reinvest in the business and to support our ongoing deleveraging efforts. We will reevaluate our dividend policy as our leverage ratio improves.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

For a description of recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements, including the respective dates of adoption and expected effects on our results of operations and financial condition, see Part II, Item 8, Note 2, Recent Accounting Pronouncements, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

We have prepared the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP). The preparation of the financial statements requires the use of judgments and estimates that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity. We have adopted accounting policies and practices that are generally accepted in the industry in which we operate. If these estimates differ significantly from actual results, the impact to the Consolidated Financial Statements may be material.

Revenue

We provide distributors and retailers (collectively referred to as “resellers”) with limited price protection for inventories held by resellers at the time of published list price reductions. We also provide resellers and original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) with other sales incentive programs. The Company records estimated variable consideration related to these items as a reduction to revenue at the time of revenue recognition. We use judgment in our assessment of variable consideration in contracts to be included in the transaction price. We use the expected value method to arrive at the amount of variable consideration. The Company is constraining variable consideration until the likelihood of a significant revenue reversal is not probable and believes that the expected value method is the appropriate estimate of the amount of variable consideration based on the fact that we have a large number of contracts with similar characteristics.

For sales to OEMs, the Company’s methodology for estimating variable consideration is based on the amount of consideration expected to be earned based on the OEMs’ volume of purchases from the Company or other agreed upon sales incentive programs. For sales to resellers, the methodology for estimating variable consideration is based on several factors including historical pricing information, current pricing trends and channel inventory levels. Differences between the estimated and actual amounts of variable consideration are recognized as adjustments to revenue.

Marketing development program costs are typically recorded as a reduction of the transaction price and, therefore, of revenue. We net sales rebates against open customer receivable balances if the criteria to offset are met, otherwise they are recorded within other accrued liabilities.

Inventories

We value inventories at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or net realizable value. We record inventory write-downs for the valuation of inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value by analyzing market conditions and estimates of future sales prices as compared to inventory costs and inventory balances.
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We evaluate inventory balances for excess quantities and obsolescence on a regular basis by analyzing estimated demand, inventory on hand, sales levels and other information and reduce inventory balances to net realizable value for excess and obsolete inventory based on this analysis. Unanticipated changes in technology or customer demand could result in a decrease in demand for one or more of our products, which may require a write down of inventory that could materially affect operating results.

Litigation and Other Contingencies

When we become aware of a claim or potential claim, we assess the likelihood of any loss or exposure. We disclose information regarding each material claim where the likelihood of a loss contingency is probable or reasonably possible. If a loss contingency is probable and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated, we record an accrual for the loss. In such cases, there may be an exposure to potential loss in excess of the amount accrued. Where a loss is not probable but is reasonably possible or where a loss in excess of the amount accrued is reasonably possible, we disclose an estimate of the amount of the loss or range of possible losses for the claim if a reasonable estimate can be made, unless the amount of such reasonably possible losses is not material to our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. The ability to predict the ultimate outcome of such matters involves judgments, estimates and inherent uncertainties. The actual outcome of such matters could differ materially from management’s estimates. For additional information, see Part II, Item 8, Note 16, Legal Proceedings, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Income Taxes

We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which provides that deferred tax assets and liabilities be recognized for temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of our assets and liabilities and expected benefits of utilizing net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We record a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Each quarter, we evaluate the need for a valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets and we adjust the valuation allowance so that we record net deferred tax assets only to the extent that we conclude it is more likely than not that these deferred tax assets will be realized. We account for interest and penalties related to income taxes as a component of the provision for income taxes.

We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on a two-step process. To the extent a tax position does not meet a more-likely-than-not level of certainty, no benefit is recognized in the financial statements. If a position meets the more-likely-than-not level of certainty, it is recognized in the financial statements at the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized on liabilities recorded for uncertain tax positions and are recorded in our provision for income taxes. The actual liability for unrealized tax benefits in any such contingency may be materially different from our estimates, which could result in the need to record additional liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits or potentially adjust previously-recorded liabilities for unrealized tax benefits and materially affect our operating results.